This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #63

Issue #63


Issue #63

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Virtual ASICs: Generalized Proof-of-Stake Mining in Cryptocurrencies.

TLDR:

  1. Proof-of- stake consensus protocols (PoS) provides guarantees similar to PoW assuming that a majority of the wealth in the system is controlled by honest participants.

  2. This paper argues that the design space of PoS-like protocols can be expanded and that further improvements are possible.

  3. Some advantages and disadvantages of PoW and PoS can be combined with a system based on virtual ASICs.

  4. Virtual ASICs are tokenized representations of mining power that mimic many of the properties of their physical counterparts but do not waste any physical resources.

  5. Their properties can be fine-tuned to further adjust the incentives of miners in ways that improve the stability, well-being, and decentralization of the system.

  6. A consensus protocol is constructed that is based on a leader election lottery, where the probability that a party is elected as a leader in a given slot is proportional to the party’s mining rate of the virtual ASICs in the system.

  7. Next, this work shows how to bootstrap our ASIC blockchain system by constructing a mechanism for acquiring ASICs on the blockchain.

  8. An all-or-nothing broadcast channel is used to construct an ASIC auction, and also to allow miners to commit in advance to powering their ASICs.

AuthorsChaya Ganesh*, Claudio Orlandi†, Daniel Tschudi‡, and Aviv Zohar§,

Affiliations: * Indian Institute of Science, † Aarhus University, ‡ Concordium, Zurich, and § The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Lattice-based Fault Attacks against Deterministic Signatures ECDSA and EdDSA.

Summary: Eight efficient lattice-based fault attacks (and one differential fault attack) against deterministic ECDSA and two ones against EdDSA are proposed.

Authors: Weiqiong Cao*, Hongsong Shi*, Hua Chen†, Wei Xi‡, Haoyuan Li†, Limin Fan†, and Wenling Wu†,

Affiliations* China Information Technology Security Evaluation Center, † Chinese Academy of Sciences, and ‡ China Southern Power Grid.

2. Paper Title: Generically Speeding-Up Repeated Squaring is Equivalent to Factoring: Sharp Thresholds for All Generic-Ring Delay Functions.

Summary: This work proves sharp thresholds on the sequentiality of all generic-ring delay functions relative to an RSA modulus based on the hardness of factoring in the standard model.

Authors: Lior Rotem* and Gil Segev*,

Affiliations* Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

3. Paper Title: Bitcoin Covenants: Three Ways to Control the Future.

Summary: This work introduces a mechanism to construct a general class of covenants without requiring a change to the consensus rules of bitcoin, in contrast to previous covenant mechanism proposals.

Authors: Jacob Swambo*, Spencer Hommel†, Bob McElrath , and Bryan Bishop,

Affiliations* King’s College London and † Fidelity Center for Applied Technology.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: Groth16 SNARKs are Randomizable and (Weakly) Simulation Extractable.

Summary: This work shows that Groth16 is both weakly-simulation extractable and perfectly and efficiently randomizable.

Authors: Mikhail Volkhov* and Markulf Kohlweiss*†,

Affiliations* The University of Edinburgh and † IOHK.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: A Few Explanations for <Fast-to-Finalize Nakamoto-Like Consensus>

Summary: This article asymptotically analyses the convergence of Nakamoto-like consensus of Tang et al. by proposing a general framework for formalizing consensus schemes comprising both the classical Nakamoto consensus (bitcoin consensus) and the consensus of Tang et al.

Authors: Shuyang Tang*,

Affiliations* Shanghai Jiao Tong University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Backtesting of Algorithmic Cryptocurrency Trading Strategies.

Summary: A tool for backtesting algorithmic trading strategies for cryptocurrencies that provides a convenient way to automatically run comparisons of multi-dimensional parameter spaces for algorithmic trading strategies.

AuthorsJan Spörer*,

Affiliations: * Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.

2. Paper Title: An Economic Model of Blockchain: The Interplay between Transaction Fees and Security.

Summary: A model to analyze how miners’ participation decisions interact with users’ participation and fee decisions in equilibrium, and identify the optimal protocol design when the goal is to maximize total throughput or users’ utility.

AuthorsJiahao He*, Guangyuan Zhang*, Jiheng Zhang*, and Rachel Q. Zhang*,

Affiliations: * The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.


Conferences, Journals, & CFPs:


Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #62

Issue #62


Issue #62

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Bulletproofs+: Shorter Proofs for Privacy-Enhanced Distributed Ledger.

TLDR:

  1. Due to distributed and transparent nature, short NIZK without a trusted setup is highly desired in the context of distributed ledger.

  2. This work presents an improved variety of Bulletproofs, that has shorter proof size than Bulletproofs.

  3. It achieves the shortest proof size in the category of NIZK without trusted setup. 

  4. The main ingredient is the zero-knowledge weighted inner product argument (zk-WIP) to which it reduces both the range proof and the arithmetic circuit proof.

  5. The benefit of reducing to the zk-WIP is a minimal transmission cost during the reduction process, which makes the overall proof size of Bulletproofs+ smaller than that of Bulletproofs.

  6. This work also has additional extensions such as aggregating range proofs and batch verification.

AuthorsHeewon Chung*, Kyoohyung Han†, Chanyang Ju*, Myungsun Kim‡, and Jae Hong Seo*,

Affiliations: * Hanyang University, † Samsung SDS R&D Center, and ‡ The University of Suwon.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Counting Down Thunder: Timing Attacks on Privacy in Payment Channel Networks.

Summary: Potential timing attacks on privacy in payment channel networks.

Authors: Elias Rohrer* and Florian Tschorsch*,

Affiliations* Technical University of Berlin.

2. Paper Title: Minerva: The curse of ECDSA nonces Systematic analysis of lattice attacks on noisy leakage of bit-length of ECDSA nonces.

Summary: A group of side-channel vulnerabilities in implementations of the ECDSA signature algorithm.

Authors: Ján Jančár*, Vladimír Sedláček*†, Petr Švenda*, and Marek Sýs*,

Affiliations* Masaryk University and † Ca’ Foscari University of Venice.

3. Paper Title: CoinPolice: Detecting Hidden Cryptojacking Attacks with Neural Networks.

Summary: This work presents a system for hidden cryptojacking detection and identifies features that can be used to detect malicious cryptocurrency mining on web pages.

Authors: Ivan Petrov*, Luca Invernizzi†, and Elie Bursztein†,

Affiliations* Lomonosov Moscow State University and † Google.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Anonymous probabilistic payment in payment hub.

Summary: An anonymous probabilistic payment that aims to solve both scalability and privacy protection.

Authors: Tatsuo Mitani* and Akira Otsuka*,

Affiliations* Institute of Information Security.

2. Paper Title: Decentralized reputation.

Summary: A privacy-preserving reputation scheme for collaborative systems such as P2P networks in which peers can represent themselves with different pseudonyms when interacting with others.

Authors: Tassos Dimitriou*,

Affiliations* IEEE.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

Check out paper of the week.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Time-Variant Proof-of-Work Using Error-Correction Codes.

Summary: A new PoW called Error-Correction Codes PoW (ECCPoW) where the error-correction codes and their decoder can be utilized for PoW.

Authors: Sangjun Park*, Haeung Choi†, and *Heung-No Lee†,

Affiliations* Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute and † Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: The New Money: The Utility of Cryptocurrencies and the Need for a New Monetary Policy.

Summary: This paper sets out to explore the utility of cryptocurrencies and CBDC, their implications on the economy and the government’s ability to use monetary policy.

AuthorsDavid Kuo Chuen Lee* and Ernie G. S. Teo†,

Affiliations: * Singapore University of Social Sciences and † NUS Business School.

2. Paper Title: Bitcoin Insurance? The Emerging Market For Digital Asset Insurance.

Summary: This article provides an overview of the relevant technology, outlines the state of the digital asset insurance industry, and discusses how the insurance integral to the broader blockchain ecosystem.

AuthorsAdam Zuckerman*,

Affiliations: * University of Pennsylvania.

3. Paper Title: Trustless Architecture and the V-Form Organisation.

Summary: The current organisational forms have exhausted the levels of trust that have previously sustained them.

AuthorsChris Berg*, Sinclair Davidson, and Jason Potts*,

Affiliations: * RMIT University.


Conferences, Journals, & CFPs:


Conferences’ Videos:


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RFPs:


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #61

Issue #61


Issue #61

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Equilibrium of Blockchain Miners with Dynamic Asset Allocation.

TLDR:

  1. In Bitcoin network, most of the mining power is controlled by mining pools, and most of the hash rate is produced by “mining factories” that equip ASIC mining machines.

  2. Since ASIC mining machines have limited purposes other than mining, the economic behavior of a miner depends on its long- term prediction rather than a short-term benefit.

  3. Hence, it is necessary to analyze long-term incentives that the PoW mechanism gives to each miner and to establish the theory to evaluate the sustainability of the cryptoasset.

  4. The theory is useful not only for miners to determine their strategy but also for protocol designers and business entities to use permissionless blockchains for their applications.

  5. This paper proposes a model that allows dynamic mining algorithms by formulating the economics of mining as a binomial tree model for the probabilistic return from mining reward minus cost, while a Poisson process triggers the growth of the binomial tree.

  6. Results show that the proposed model is a generalization of the existing Poisson reward model.

Authors: Go Yamamoto*, Aron Laszka†, and Fuhito Kojima*,

Affiliations: * NTT Research Inc. and † University of Houston.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Flood & Loot: A Systemic Attack On The Lightning Network.

Summary: An attack in which an attacker can successfully steal funds from nodes on the Lightning Network.

Authors: Jona Harris* and Aviv Zohar*,

Affiliations* The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

2. Paper Title: Reputable List Curation from Decentralized Voting.

Summary: A formal cryptographic treatment of token-curated registries, including a model capturing their requirements and a provably secure construction.

Authors: Elizabeth C. Crites*, Mary Maller†, Sarah Meiklejohn*, and Rebekah Mercer‡,

Affiliations* University College London, † Ethereum Foundation, and ‡ O(1) Labs.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: On the Confidentiality of Amounts in Grin.

Summary: An empirical analysis of the confidentiality of amounts in the Grin blockchain which takes the transaction graph into account.

Authors: Suyash Bagad* and Saravanan Vijayakumaran*,

Affiliations* Indian Institute of Technology.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Rational Behavior in Committee-Based Blockchains.

Summary: This work analyzes the behavior of rational players in committee-based blockchains under assumptions of synchrony of messages and under different mechanisms of rewards.

Authors: Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou*†, Bruno Biais‡, Maria Potop-Butucaru†, Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni*,

Affiliations* CEA LIST, † Sorbonne Universite, and ‡ HEC Paris.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: REA, Triple-Entry Accounting and Blockchain: Converging Paths to Shared Ledger Systems.

Summary: This work attempts to trace the true historical genesis of blockchain. It explores possible connections among the long-established REA and TEA frameworks, and the nascent blockchain technology.

AuthorsJuan Ignacio Ibañez*, Chris N. Bayer†, Paolo Tasca‡, and Jiahua Xu‡,

Affiliations: * Catholic University of Córdoba, † Development International e.V., and ‡ University College of London.

2. Paper Title: Economics of Permissioned Blockchain Adoption.

Summary: An economic framework for understanding the incentives of the participants of a permissioned blockchain for supply chains and other related industries.

AuthorsGarud Iyengar*, Fahad Saleh†, Jay Sethuraman*, and Wenjun Wang*,

Affiliations: * Columbia University and † McGill University.

3. Paper Title: Can Antitrust Trust Blockchain?

Summary: DLT is not immune from government forms of regulation, including antitrust.

AuthorsGiovanna Massarotto*,

Affiliations: * UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies.

4. Paper Title: Digital Asset Market Evolution.

Summary: This work examines data trends and their underlying causes in the evolution of the market for digital assets. 

AuthorsWulf A. Kaal*

Affiliations: * University of St. Thomas.

5. Paper Title: Can Digital Technologies Speed up Real Estate Transactions?

Summary: This study presents a structured investigation of the most important causes for delay in commercial real estate transactions.

AuthorsAndrew Bauma*, Andrew Saulla*, and Fabian Braesemann*,

Affiliations: * University of Oxford.

6. Paper Title: After Libra, Digital Yuan and COVID-19: Central Bank Digital Currencies and the New World of Money and Payment Systems.

Summary: This paper analyses the impact of distributed ledger technologies and blockchain on monetary and payment systems.

AuthorsDouglas W. Arner*, Ross P. Buckley†, Dirk A. ZetzscheAnton N. Didenko†,

Affiliations: * The University of Hong Kong, † UNSW, and ‡ Universite du Luxembourg.


Conferences, Journals, & CFPs:


Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #60

Issue #60


Issue #60

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: An airdrop that preserves recipient privacy.

TLDR:

  1. Newly-created cryptocurrencies face a chicken-and-egg problem: users appear to prefer currencies that already have a thriving ecosystem.

  2. An airdrop is designed to transfer value to passive recip- ients. To be most effective at recruiting new users, an airdrop should not require recipients to enroll ahead of time—or, in the best case, even to know about the airdrop in advance.

  3. Airdrops have a serious flaw: they offer no privacy to their recipients. This means that an observer can easily learn whether or not any given recipient has claimed her airdropped value.

  4. Even cryptocurrencies that provide anonymity mechanisms for on-chain transactions do not prevent this leakage, because a recipient must first use her existing identity to claim the airdropped funds.

  5. Existing solutions fall short of addressing this issue. The simplest possible approach—sending each recipient a fresh secret key for claiming her funds— carries an even stronger disincentive: it requires recipients to trust the sender.

  6. This work builds an efficient and practical private airdrop system using special-purpose zero-knowledge proofs designed for this task.

  7. It exhibits practical private airdrop schemes designed to work with ECDSA and RSA credentials.

  8. Next, it carefully describes how to use private airdrops to bootstrap a new cryptocurrency, a scheme called a private genesis airdrop.

AuthorsRiad S. Wahby*, Dan Boneh*, Christopher Jeffrey†, and Joseph Poon‡,

Affiliations: * Stanford University, † Purse.io, and ‡ Unaffiliated.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Blockchain with Varying Number of Players.

Summary: Does Nakamoto’s protocol satisfy consistency and liveness when the total computing power in the network can vary, assuming just an upper-bound on the maximum network delay?

Authors: T-H. Hubert Chan*, Naomi Ephraim†, Antonio Marcedone†, Andrew Morgan†, Rafael Pass‡, and Elaine Shi†,

Affiliations* The University of Hong Kong, † Cornell University, and ‡ Cornell Tech.

2. Paper Title: Bitcoin covenants unchained.

Summary: A formal model of covenants, which can be implemented with minor modifications to Bitcoin.

Authors: Massimo Bartoletti*, Stefano Lande*, and Roberto Zunino†,

Affiliations* Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and † Universita degli Studi di Trento.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Ledger Combiners for Fast Settlement.

Summary: Combining a family of existing ledgers into a new, virtual ledger that provides amplified security properties. 

Authors: Matthias Fitzi*, Peter Gaži*, Aggelos Kiayias*†, and Alexander Russell*‡,

Affiliations* IOHK Research, † University of Edinburgh, and ‡ University of Connecticut.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: LotMint: Blockchain Returning to Decentralization with Decentralized Clock.

Summary: A novel notion of Decentralized Clock/Time (DC/DT) as global and logical clock/time which can be agreed upon as a consensus.

Authors: Wenbo MAO* and Wenxiang WANG*,

Affiliations* LotMint DAO.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Central Bank Digital Currency with Adjustable Interest Rate in Small Open Economies.

Summary: This work examines the economic consequences of an interest-bearing design of the Central-Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), and extends the discussion to an open-economy context with trade and capital flows.

AuthorsAmmu George*, Taojun Xie†, and Joseph D. Alba*,

Affiliations: * Nanyang Technological University and † National University of Singapore.

2. Paper Title: Risks and Benefits of Initial Coin Offerings: Evidence from Impak Finance, a Regulated ICO.

Summary: This study provides a better understanding of the business and legal environment surrounding Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs).

AuthorsEmilio Boulianne* and Melissa Fortin*,

Affiliations: * John Molson School of Business.

3. Paper Title: The Public Blockchain Ecosystem: An Empirical Analysis.

Summary: This paper offers an organizing empirical framework to understand the largely unexplored public blockchain ecosystem.

AuthorsFelix Irresberger*, Kose John†, and Fahad Saleh‡,

Affiliations: * Leeds University, † New York University, and ‡ McGill University.

4. Paper Title: A Survey of Fintech Research and Policy Discussion.

Summary: This paper provides a comprehensive fintech literature survey with relevant research studies and policy discussion around the various aspects of fintech. 

AuthorsFranklin Allen*, Xian Gu†, and Julapa Jagtiani‡,

Affiliations: * Imperial College London, † University of Pennsylvania, and ‡ Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.


Conferences, Journals, & CFPs:


Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #59

Issue #59


Issue #59

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Tight Consistency Bounds for Bitcoin.

TLDR:

  1. Despite over a decade of study, the fundamental guarantees of the Bitcoin protocol are not well understood. Roughly, the essential ledger properties—consistency and liveness—are determined by three interacting features: the hashing power of the adversary, the hashing power of the honest parties, and networking delays.

  2. Ideally, one would like to establish the precise relationship between these parameters, exactly characterizing the parametrizations that guarantee the Bitcoin ledger properties. This work establishes this relationship.

  3. Adversarial and honest proof-of-work successes are modeled as independent Poisson processes, with parameters “rh” and “ra”.

  4. Consistency accrues exponentially quickly in the sense that blocks appearing at depth k in a longest chain can only be later abandoned with probability exp(−Ω(k)).

  5. Liveness in this region follows from a simple chain growth argument that provides similar exponential guarantees.

  6. This result is tight: if “ra” exceeds this threshold, the simple private-chain attack prevents consensus.

AuthorsPeter Gazi*, Aggelos Kiayias*†, and Alexander Russell*‡,

Affiliations: * IOHK Research, † University of Edinburgh, and ‡ University of Connecticut.


Security:

1. Paper Title: About Blockchain Interoperability.

Summary: Blockchain interoperability is impossible according to the classical definition of a blockchain.

Authors: Pascal Lafourcade* and Marius Lombard-Platet†‡,

Affiliations* Universite Clermont-Auvergne, † Departement d’informatique de l’ENS, and ‡ Be-Studys.

2. Paper Title: Overview of Polkadot and its Design Considerations.

Summary: The design components of the heterogenous multi-chain protocol Polkadot and explain how these components help Polkadot address some of the existing short-comings of blockchain technologies.

Authors: Jeff Burdges*, Alfonso Cevallos*, Peter Czaban*, Rob Habermeier†, Syed Hosseini*, Fabio Lama*, Handan Kılınc Alper*, Ximin Luo*, Fatemeh Shirazi*, Alistair Stewart*, Gavin Wood*†,

Affiliations* Web3 Foundation and † Parity Technologies.

3. Paper Title: Attacking Zcash Protocol For Fun And Profit.

Summary: How the ITM Attack (a linkability attack against shielded transactions) works against Zcash Protocol and how Hush is the first cryptocoin with a defensive mitigation against it, called ”Sietch”.

Authors: Duke Leto* and The Hush Developers*

Affiliations* Hush.

4. Paper Title: Game theoretical framework for analyzing Blockchains Robustness.

Summary: A game theoretical framework in order to formally characterize the robustness of blockchains systems in terms of resilience to rational deviations and immunity to Byzantine behaviors.

Authors: P. Zappalà*, M. Belotti*, M. Potop-Butucaru†, and S. Secci*

Affiliations* Cedric and † Lip6.

5. Paper Title: Tracing Cryptocurrency Scams: Clustering Replicated Advance-Fee and Phishing Websites.

Summary: This paper analyses public online and blockchain-based data to provide a deeper understanding of these cryptocurrency scams.

Authors: Ross Phillips and Heidi Wilder,

Affiliations* Elliptic.

6. Paper Title: A Survey on Blockchain Interoperability: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

Summary: A literature review on blockchain interoperability, by collecting 262 papers, and 70 grey literature documents, constituting a corpus of 332 documents.

Authors: Rafael Belchior*, André Vasconcelos*, Sérgio Guerreiro*, and  Miguel Correia*,

Affiliations* Universidade de Lisboa.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: The Ritva Blockchain: Enabling Confidential Transactions at Scale.

Summary: This work takes advantage of trusted execution environment to offer confidentiality protection for transactions, and scale the throughput of the network in proportion with the number of network participants by supporting parallel shadow chains.

Authors: Henri Aare*, and Peter Vitols*,

Affiliations* Crystal Technology Research.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain is Watching You: Profiling and Deanonymizing Ethereum Users.

Summary: The first to propose and implement Ethereum user profiling techniques based on user quasi-identifiers.

Authors: Ferenc Beres*†, Istvan A. Seres†, Andras A. Benczur*‡, and Mikerah Quintyne-Collins§,

Affiliations* SZTAKI, † Eotvos Lorand University, ‡ Szechenyi University, and § HashCloack Inc.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: NIZK from SNARG.

Summary: A construction of a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) argument for all NP languages based on a succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for all NP languages and a one-way function.

Authors: Fuyuki Kitagawa*, Takahiro Matsuda†, and Takashi Yamakawa*,

Affiliations* NTT Secure Platform Laboratories and † National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST).


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: GHAST: Breaking Confirmation Delay Barrier in Nakamoto Consensus via Adaptive Weighted Blocks.

Summary: A new consensus protocol which organizes blocks in a Tree-Graph structure (i.e., a directed acyclic graph (DAG) with a tree embedded) that allows fast and concurrent block generation.

AuthorsChenxing Li*, Fan Long†, and Guang Yang‡,

Affiliations: * Tsinghua University, † University of Toronto, and ‡ Conflux Foundation.

2. Paper Title: ProPoS: A Probabilistic Proof-of-Stake Protocol.

Summary: A chain-based protocol that minimizes interactions between nodes through lightweight committee voting, resulting in a more simple, robust, and scalable proposal than competing systems.

Authors: Daniel Reijsbergen*, Pawel Szalachowski*, Junming Ke†, Zengpeng Li*, and Jianying Zhou*,

Affiliations* Singapore University of Technology and Design and † Shandong University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: The Public Blockchain Ecosystem: An Empirical Analysis.

Summary: This paper offers an organizing empirical framework to understand the largely unexplored public blockchain ecosystem.

AuthorsFelix IrresbergerKose John† Fahad Saleh‡,

Affiliations: * Leeds University, † New York University, and ‡ McGill University.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain in the World of Work: Hype or Hope?

Summary: This Foresight Brief describes blockchain technology and analyses its implications for the world of work and possible uses in certain sectors, including value chains. 

AuthorsAida Ponce*,

Affiliations: * European Trade Union Institute (ETUI).


Conferences, Journals, & CFPs:


Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

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