This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #47

Issue #47


Issue #47

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Remote Side-Channel Attacks on Anonymous Transactions.

TLDR:

  1. For those who want transaction privacy on a public blockchain, systems like Zcash, Monero, and several others offer differing degrees of unlinkability against a party who records all the transactions in the network.

  2. Despite using advanced cryptographic primitives such as succinct zero-knowledge arguments (zkSNARKs) and ring signatures, some protocol-level attacks on transaction privacy have been found and corrected.

  3. This work looks at side-channel information that is leaked by the implementation of different components in the system to analyze privacy guarantees.

  4. It looks at timing side-channels and traffic patterns, as measured by a remote network attacker to show that, while the abstract zero-knowledge protocols used in these systems can hide information from an observer, these protocols are vulnerable to side-channel leakage. Any information leakage can invalidate the zero-knowledge property, and weaken or break the privacy guarantees of anonymous transactions.

  5. To do so, the authors take a systematic approach, looking at the life cycle of an anonymous transaction as it traverses the system. At every step, they look for side-channels and asses their impact on user privacy.

  6. In Zcash’s implementation, the time to generate a zero-knowledge proof depends on secret transaction data, and in particular on the amount of transacted funds. Hence, an adversary capable of measuring proof generation time could break transaction confidentiality, despite the proof system’s zero-knowledge property.

AuthorsFlorian Tramèr*, Dan Boneh*, and Kenneth G. Paterson†,

Affiliations: * Stanford University and † ETH Zurich.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Modeling the Impact of Network Connectivity on Consensus Security of Proof-of-Work Blockchain.

Summary: An analytical model to assess the impact of network connectivity on the consensus security of PoW blockchain under different adversary models.

Authors: Yang Xiao*, Ning Zhang†, Wenjing Lou*, and Y. Thomas Hou*,

Affiliations: * Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and † Washington University in St. Louis.

2. Paper Title: Double-Spend Counterattacks: Threat of Retaliation in Proof-of-Work Systems.

Summary: A formalized defense to double-spend attacks showing that when the victim can counterattack in the same way as the attacker, this leads to a variation on the classic game-theoretic War of Attrition model. 

AuthorsDaniel J. Moroz*, Daniel J. Aronoff†, Neha Narula†, and David C. Parkes†,

Affiliations: * Harvard University and † MIT.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Pricing ASICs for Cryptocurrency Mining.

Summary: This work presents a method of ASIC valuation and shows that mining hardware can be imitated using bonds and the underlying cryptocurrencies.

Authors: Aviv Yaish* and Aviv Zohar*,

Affiliations* The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: The New ICO Intermediaries.

Summary: This article assesses the possibility of an ICO auditor, providing a framework for understanding potential audit functions.

AuthorsVanessa Villanueva Collao* and Verity Winship*

Affiliations: * University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: The Pitfalls of a Trustless Dream.

Summary: Despite its potential for disintermediation and decentralized cooperation, the social and political implications of blockchain technology are difficult to predict.

AuthorsPrimavera De Filippi*,

Affiliations: * Université Paris II - Panthéon-Assas.

3. Paper Title: The Political Economy of Blockchain Governance.

Summary: This work investigates the ways in which the decentralized governance structure and preferences of users influence which policies are implemented, considering network effects as well as user preferences for different policies.

AuthorsBarton E. Lee*, Daniel J. Moroz, and David C. Parkes,

Affiliations: * UNSW and † Harvard University.

4. Paper Title: Blockchain and Investment: An Austrian Approach.

Summary: Using a broad Austrian economic approach, this work examines how blockchain technology will affect the cost of trust, patterns of investment, and economic institutions.

AuthorsDarcy W.E. Allen*, Chris Berg*, Sinclair Davidson*, and Jason Potts*,

Affiliations: * RMIT University.

5. Paper Title: Blockchain, Fractional Ownership, and the Future of Creative Work.

Summary: This paper, for the first time, uses archivally sourced primary market records to model returns on art and introduces a novel fractional equity structure for artists. 

AuthorsAmy Whitaker* and Roman Kräussl,

Affiliations: * New York University and † Luxembourg School of Finance.

6. Paper Title: Assessing the Viability of Blockchain to Impact the Antiquities Trade.

Summary: This essay examines whether blockchain might offer a chance for the antiquities market to remedy its persistent problems.

AuthorsDerek Fincham*

Affiliations: * South Texas College of Law Houston.


Upcoming Conferences:


Past Conferences’ Videos:


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RFPs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #46

Issue #46


Issue #46

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Bitcoin Crypto–Bounties for Quantum Capable Adversaries.

TLDR:

  1. In Bitcoin, the mechanism for ensuring ownership of funds relies on ECDSA. Bitcoin’s cryptography must be updated; in fact there are plenty post-quantum cryptographic schemes to choose from if one is willing to sacrifice speed and storage.

  2. Such a scheme will be implemented in Bitcoin at some point and the majority of users will be able to safely lock their funds with quantum resistant signatures.

  3. However, in the extreme scenario of a Quantum Computer appearing without notice, not all users would be able to benefit from this upgrade. Interestingly, the recommended practices in Bitcoin would offer some level of quantum resistance that allows re- covering funds safely, but unfortunately, many users do not follow these.

  4. This paper analyses Bitcoin (BTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH) for the amount of funds secured by exposed public keys; or, from the perspective of a quantum research group, the “crypto–bounty” for engineering a powerful quantum computer.

  5. It first describes the setting in which a quantum enabled adversary would operate if it were to start attacking the Bitcoin network considering developers and users take immediate measures to protect their funds and recover the network.

  6. Next, it presents two models of attackers: one that can run Shor’s algorithm virtually instantly and a slower one that might be more realistic for the first generations of attackers.

  7. The paper also describes attack vectors for maximising the crypto–bounty, i.e. the amount of funds that are impossible to recover by legitimate users in the presence of the attacker.

  8. Lastly, a study of the evolution of the crypto–bounty in Bitcoin and its most significant fork, Bitcoin Cash, is presented.

AuthorsDragos I. Ilie*, Kostis Karantias†, and William J. Knottenbelt*,

Affiliations: * Imperial College London and † IOHK.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Securing Proof-of-Work Ledgers via Checkpointing.

Summary: The first rigorous study of checkpointing as a mechanism to protect PoW ledgers from 51% attacks.

AuthorsDimitris Karakostas*† and Aggelos Kiayias*†,

Affiliations: * University of Edinburgh and † IOHK.

2. Paper Title: Fair and Decentralized Exchange of Digital Goods.

Summary: A solution to the problem of trading real-world private information using only cryptographic protocols and a public blockchain to guarantee the fairness of transactions.

AuthorsAriel Futoransky*, Carlos Sarraute†‡, Daniel Fernandez†, Matias Travizano†, and Ariel Waissbein*,

Affiliations: * Disarmista, †Wibson, and Grandata‡.

3. Paper Title: Proof of Necessary Work: Succinct State Verification with Fairness Guarantees.

Summary: A new distributed payment system which uses Incrementally Verifi- able Computation (IVC) to enable constant-time verification.

Authors: Assimakis A. Kattis* and Joseph Bonneau*,

Affiliations* NYU.

4. Paper Title: SodsBC: Stream of Distributed Secrets for Quantum-safe Blockchain.

Summary: SodsBC uses only quantum-safe cryptographic tools and copes with at most f malicious (aka Byzantine) participants, where the number of all participants n = 3f + 1.

AuthorsShlomi Dolev* and Ziyu Wang*†,

Affiliations: * Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and † Beihang University.

5. Paper Title: Characterizing EOSIO Blockchain.

Summary: A large-scale measurement study of the EOSIO blockchain and its associated DApps.

AuthorsYuheng Huang*, Haoyu Wang*, Lei Wu†, Gareth Tyson‡, Xiapu Luo§, Run Zhang*, Xuanzhe Liu✜, Gang Huang✜, and Xuxian Jiang$,

Affiliations: * Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, † Zhejiang University, ‡ Queen Mary University of London, § The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, ✜ Peking University, and $PeckShield, Inc.

6. Paper Title: On the Feasibility of Sybil Attacks in Shard-Based Permissionless Blockchains.

Summary: An analytical model to calculate the probability of successful Sybil attack to shard-based permissionless blockchains.

AuthorsTayebeh Rajab*, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei*‡, Mohammad Dakhilalian*, Murtuza Jadliwala†, and Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman‡,

Affiliations: * Isfahan University of Technology, † University of Texas at San Antonio, and ‡ Florida International University.

7. Paper Title: Congestion Attacks in Payment Channel Networks.

Summary: This paper evaluates an attack that locks funds in channels between honest participants that are potentially far away from the attacker, giving the attacker the ability to disrupt the transfer of payments throughout the network

AuthorsAyelet Mizrahi* and Aviv Zohar*,

Affiliations: * The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Phantom: An Efficient Privacy Protocol Using zk-SNARKs Based on Smart Contracts.

Summary: This paper presents an efficient privacy protocol using zk-SNARKs based on smart contracts.

AuthorsXing Li*, Yi Zheng†, Kunxian Xia*, Tongcheng Sun‡, and John Beyler†,

Affiliations: * Unita Technology, † Qtum Chain Foundation, and ‡ Peking University.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Ethna: Channel Network with Dynamic Internal Payment Splitting.

Summary: A new technique that allows the intermediaries in the network to split the payments into several sub-payments.

Authors: Stefan Dziembowski* and Paweł Kędzior*,

Affiliations: * University of Warsaw.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Blockchain using Proof-of-Interaction.

Summary: A better alternative to PoW which requires negligible computational power.

AuthorsJean-Philippe Abegg*†, Quentin Bramas*, and Thomas Noel*

Affiliations: * University of Strasbourg and † Transchain.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Reports of a Blockchain Revolution in Trade Finance Are Greatly Exaggerated.

Summary: Belief in the potential of blockchain (or “distributed ledger”) technologies to revolutionize financial markets appears in some quarters to border on religious fanaticism.

AuthorsJane K. Winn*

Affiliations: * University of Washington.

2. Paper Title: A Regulatory Framework for Cryptocurrency.

Summary: The paper examines cryptocurrency in the crypto-finance ecosystem and identifies areas in which regulatory intervention is required.

AuthorsJoseph Lee* and Florian Lheureux*,

Affiliations: * University of Exeter.


Upcoming Conferences:


Past Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #45

Issue #45


Issue #45

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Smart Contract Derivatives.

TLDR:

  1. Smart contracts on blockchain platforms have limited capabilities even when developed in Turing Complete languages such as Solidity. They are executed in their own isolated environment, with full access to their own state, but limited access to what is happening in the rest of the blockchain system.

  2. This work puts forth a mechanism which allows so-called derivative smart contracts to read the (potentially private) state of other, so-called underlying, smart contracts, inspect any events they have fired and when, and more generally react arbitrarily to any changes in the execution.

  3. The underlying contract may not be designed (or willing) to work with the derivative contract and hence the proposed mechanism allows it to remain agnostic to the interaction.

  4. This work develops the proposed solution in the form of a Solidity contract which can be used as an oracle to create a derivative contract.

  5. Three options for the instantiation of the oracle contract are given: (i) based on a special Solidity feature and is the cheapest to implement and use, (ii) based on the BTCRelay design and requires helpful users to submit every block to this oracle contract, and (ii) draws from the design in this and harnesses the power of Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof- of-Work (NIPoPoWs) for efficiency.

AuthorsKostis Karantias*, Aggelos Kiayias*‡, and Dionysis Zindros*†,

Affiliations: * IOHK, † University of Athens, ‡ University of Edinburgh.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Efficient Fair Multiparty Protocols using Blockchain and Trusted Hardware.

Summary: This paper has demonstrated attacks on the fairness properties of the various multiparty protocols described here and here; these attacks are only effective, if we weaken the security of their underlying sub-protocol.

AuthorsSouradyuti Paul* and Ananya Shrivastava†,

Affiliations: * Indian Institute of Technology Bhilai and † Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Zendoo: a zk-SNARK Verifiable Cross-Chain Transfer Protocol Enabling Decoupled and Decentralized Sidechains.

Summary: A construction for Bitcoin-like blockchain systems that allows the creation and communication with sidechains of different types without knowing their internal structure.

AuthorsAlberto Garoffolo*, Dmytro Kaidalov†, and Roman Oliynykov†,

Affiliations: * Horizen and † IOHK Research.

2. Paper Title: BatPay: a gas efficient protocol for the recurrent micropayment of ERC20 tokens.

Summary: A proxy scaling solution for the transfer of ERC20 tokens.

Authors: Hartwig Mayer*, Ismael Bejarano*, Daniel Fernandez†, Gustavo Ajzenman†, Nicolas Ayala†, Nahuel Santoalla†, Carlos Sarraute†, Ariel Futoransky‡.

Affiliations: * CoinFabrik, † Wibson, ‡ Disarmista.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: Stacked Garbling for Disjunctive Zero-Knowledge Proofs.

Summary: A privacy- free circuit garbling scheme that can be used with the JKO GC-ZKP protocol to construct more efficient ZKP.

AuthorsDavid Heath and Vladimir Kolesnikov,

Affiliations: * Georgia Institute of Technology.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Succinctly Reconstructed Distributed Signatures and Balanced Byzantine Agreement.

Summary: The first two BA protocols with Õ(1) balanced communication, offering a tradeoff between setup and cryptographic assumptions.

Authors: Elette Boyle*, Ran Cohen†, Aarushi Goel‡,

Affiliations* IDC Herzliya, † Northeastern University, and ‡ Johns Hopkins University.

2. Paper Title: Comparison of Decentralization in DPoS and PoW Blockchains.

Summary: This paper presents a comparison study of the level of decentralization in Bitcoin and in Steem, a leading Delegated-Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) blockchain.

AuthorsChao Li* and Balaji Palanisamy†,

Affiliations: * Beijing Jiaotong University and † University of Pittsburgh.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Blockchain Governance: What We Can Learn From the Economics of Corporate Governance.

Summary: The aim of this paper is to draw on institutional governance theory—including corporate governance—to provide insights into the core considerations in designing blockchain governance mechanisms.

AuthorsDarcy W.E. Allen* and Chris Berg*,

Affiliations: * RMIT Blockchain Innovation Hub.

2. Paper Title: Smart Contracts for Securities Transactions on the DLT Platform (Blockchain): Legal Obstacles and Regulatory Challenges.

Summary: This paper discusses how smart contracts can be used for securities transactions on the DLT network.

AuthorsJoseph Lee*,

Affiliations: * University of Exeter.


Upcoming Conferences:


Past Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #44

Issue #44


Issue #44

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Ant Routing scalability for the Lightning Network.

TLDR:

  1. The Lightning Network was introduced in order to address Bitcoin scalability and builds on a “layer 2”-network set on top of Bitcoin’s network that facilitates micro-payments between bitcoin users without needing to broadcast the transaction on the blockchain.

  2. Although not a complete graph, it has the property of channel composition that allows any user on the network to make secure payments to any other node in the same connected component of the network, even when no direct payment channel exists.

  3. The need for a good routing algorithm is essential, and ideally, one wants to have a routing algorithm which is safe, decentralized, anonymous, and only requires minimum knowledge of the network from all participants.

  4. Ant Routing is a completely decentralized routing algorithm which does not require beacon nodes nor routing tables. Instead, each node of the network executes the exact same task which requires no knowledge of the topology of the network.

  5. The goal of this article is to estimate the performance of Ant Routing, and propose more precise and efficient implementation. In particular, it investigates if this routing algorithm is compatible with the original ambition of the Lightning Network to solve Bitcoin scalability at planetary level, hence providing an instantaneous decentralized global payment network.

  6. This article gives a positive answer to this question. The conservative estimates presented show that Ant Routing can sustain more than 10,000 transactions per second.

AuthorsCyril Grunspan*, Gabriel Lehéricy* and Ricardo Pérez-Marco†,

Affiliations: * De Vinci Research Center and † CNRS.


Security:

1. Paper Title: On the Profitability of Selfish Mining Against Multiple Difficulty Adjustment Algorithms.

Summary: This work investigates the profitability of selfish mining against difficulty adjustment algorithms other than Bitcoin’s and Ethereum’s, while suggesting parameter changes that may improve the algorithms’ resistance to selfish mining.

AuthorsMichael Davidson* and Tyler Diamond*,

Affiliations: * NIST.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

2. Paper Title: Local Bitcoin Network Simulator for Performance Evaluation using Lightweight Virtualization.

Summary: A new blockchain network simulation framework for Bitcoin performance analysis and evaluation that adopts the virtualization approach for constructing a private network through executing Bitcoin’s full node reference application with the ability of performing fine tuned testing scenarios.

AuthorsLina Alsahan*, Noureddine Lasla*, and Mohamed Abdallah*,

Affiliations: * HBKU.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Fully Distributed Verifiable Random Functions and their Application to Decentralised Random Beacons.

Summary: The first systematic analysis of (Non-Interactive) Fully Distributed Verifiable Random Functions (DVRFs), including their syntax and the definition of their integrity and privacy properties.

AuthorsDavid Galindo*†, Jia Liu*, Mihai Ordean†, and Jin-Mann Wong*,

Affiliations: * Fetch.AI and † University of Birmingham.

2. Paper Title: Streamlined Blockchains: A Simple and Elegant Approach.

Summary: A new paradigm called for directly constructing blockchain protocols that enables a new family of protocols which are extremely simple and natural.

Authors: Elaine Shi*,

Affiliations* Cornell University.

3. Paper Title: Streamlet: Textbook Streamlined Blockchains.

Summary: Two instantiations: one that is secure against < 1/3 corruptions and tolerates arbitrary network delays; and one that secures against minority corruptions and whose safety guarantees rely on network synchrony assumptions.

AuthorsBenjamin Y Chan* and Elaine Shi*,

Affiliations* Cornell University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) as Subjects of Law – the Recognition of DAOs in the Swiss Legal Order.

Summary: This work explores current reflections on how those new forms of entities, which have similar characteristics to companies, can be dealt with in Swiss private law.

AuthorsSven Riva*,

Affiliations: * University of Neuchâtel.

2. Paper Title: ICO Market Report 2018/2019 – Performance Analysis of 2018's Initial Coin Offerings.

Summary: This paper illustrates the ICO market of that year and scrutinizes how prices of the issued tokens have developed until mid 2019.

AuthorsMathias Fromberger* and Lars Haffke*,

Affiliations: * Technische Universität München.


Upcoming Conferences:


Past Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #43

Issue #43


Issue #43

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: All that Glitters is not Bitcoin – Unveiling the Centralized Nature of the BTC (IP) Network.

TLDR:

  1. This paper takes a complementary analysis approach of BTC, focusing both on the network side of the BTC P2P network, as well as on the ledger side of the BTC blockchain network.

  2. First, it characterize the BTC active nodes of the underlying P2P network, and study their main properties. This can be highly useful for multiple relevant use cases, including security, performance and anomaly detection, as well as relevant nodes discovery - i.e., identifying and locating the BTC miners.

  3. Next, it studies the distribution of BTC coins among independent BTC entities, being an entity either a single BTC address holding BTC coins, or a group of BTC addresses controlled by the same actor.

  4. Following that, this work presents a technique to discover the nodes of the BTC P2P network, based on active measurements.

  5. The paper clearly shows that despite the so much advertised decentralized and uncontrolled nature and underlying paradigm of BTC, the system is a highly concentrated one, in every sense.

  6. The size of the BTC network has remained almost constant during the last 12 months – since the major BTC price drop in early 2018.

  7. In terms of network infrastructure, 36% of the nodes are hosted by only 5 major cloud providers in EU and US, and 50% of the nodes reside in only 3 countries; in terms of mining activity, almost 50% of all BTC blocks are mined by 4 major mining pools in China; at last, the Gini index – i.e., a typical measure of income distribution –, of BTC coins distribution among independent entities is extremely high, i.e., above 0.98, with only 4.5% of all BTC entities holding more than 85% of all mined BTC coins so far.

Authors: Sami Ben Mariem*†, Pedro Casas*, Matteo Romiti*, Benoit Donnet†, Rainer Stutz*, and Bernhard Haslhofer*,

Affiliations: *AIT Austrian Institute of Technology and †Universitede Liege.


Security:

1. Paper Title: RSA and redactable blockchains.

Summary: A simple method of constructing redactable blockchains inspired by the ideas underlying the well-known RSA encryption scheme.

AuthorsDima Grigoriev* and Vladimir Shpilrain†,

Affiliations: * CNRS and † CUNY.

2. Paper Title: Wibson Protocol for Secure Data Exchange and Batch Payments.

Summary: A new market-based approach that leverages the latest developments in blockchain, cryptography and market design to connect data consumers (companies, organizations) and data owners (essentially, individuals).

Authors: Daniel Fernandez*, Ariel Futoransky†, Gustavo Ajzenman*, Matias Travizano* and Carlos Sarraute*,

Affiliations* Wibson and † Disarmista


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Metal: A Metadata-Hiding File-Sharing System.

Summary: The first cryptographic file-sharing system that hides both user identities and file access patterns both from the server and from malicious users.

AuthorsWeikeng Chen* and Raluca Ada Popa*,

Affiliations: * UC Berkeley.

2. Paper Title: A Blockchain-Based Approach for Saving and Tracking Differential-Privacy Cost.

Summary: A blockchain-based system to track and manage differential-privacy cost, which uses blockchain to make the privacy spending transparent to the data owner.

Authors: Yang Zhao*, Jun Zhao*, Jiawen Kang*, Zehang Zhang*, Dusit Niyato*, and Shuyu Shi†,

Affiliations* Nanyang Technological University and † Nanjing University.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Anchoring the value of Cryptocurrency.

Summary: A financial model for blockchain sharding that will build an active link between the value of cryptocurrency and computation resources as well as the market and labour behaviours.

AuthorsYibin Xu*, Yangyu Huang†, and Jianhua Shao*,

Affiliations: * Cardiff University and † Guilin University of Electronic Technology.

2. Paper Title: Nonlinear Blockchain Scalability: a Game-Theoretic Perspective.

Summary: A formal framework and proof that no blockchain system can achieve full verification, high scalability, and low finality-duration simultaneously.

Authors: Lin Chen*, Lei Xu†, Zhimin Gao‡, Keshav Kasichainula§, and Weidong Shi§,

Affiliations* Texas Tech University, † University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, ‡ Auburn University, and § University of Houston.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: An authentication protocol based on chaos and zero knowledge proof.

Summary: This paper offers three novel port knocking prototypes: zero knowledge proofs and chaos-based cryptography; a combination of chaos-based cryptography and random beacons; and ‘Crucible’ which is combines random beacons and password-based key derivation.

Authors: Will Major*, William J Buchanan*, and Jawad Ahmad*,

Affiliations: * Edinburgh Napier University.


Consensus:

No papers.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Price Discovery and Microstructure in Ether Spot and Derivative Markets.

Summary: Does off-chain trading on ether derivatives play a dominant role in ether spot price discovery, thereby driving ether’s utility value for on-chain activity?

AuthorsCarol Alexandera*, Jaehyuk Choic†, Hamish R. A. Massiea*, and Sungbin Sohnc†,

Affiliations: * University of Sussex Business School and † Peking University.

2. Paper Title: Transactional Scripts in Contract Stacks.

Summary: Jurists should situate scripts within other legally operative statements and disclosures, or contract stacks. Precision about the relationship between script and stack sustains a novel framework, rooted in old doctrines of interpretation, parol evidence and equity, that will help jurists compile answers to the private law problems that digitized exchange entails.

AuthorsShaanan Cohney* and David A. Hoffman*,

Affiliations: * University of Pennsylvania.

3. Paper Title: The Theory of Granularity: A Path for Antitrust in Blockchain Ecosystems.

Summary: The “theory of granularity,” which permits analysis of the roles played by each (group of) participant in the horizontal governance of public permissionless blockchains. On this basis, one may identify a “blockchain nucleus,” i.e., a set of participants collaborating to ensure and maximize the blockchain survival by “controlling” it all together. Antitrust and competition law becomes applicable again as the nucleus serves as the basis for the definition of the relevant market and market power, the assessment of practices’ legality, and liability assignment.

AuthorsThibault Schrepel*,

Affiliations: * Harvard University.


Upcoming Conferences:


Past Conferences’ Videos:


Jobs:


RFPs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

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