This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #20

Issue #20


Issue #20

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Bitcoin Security under Temporary Dishonest Majority.

TLDR: 

  1. This contribution proves that Bitcoin is secure under temporary dishonest majority and extends the work of Garay et al. in several dimensions.

  2. Initially, it extends the work of Garay et al. by allowing a temporary dishonest majority while providing a formal analysis and investigation under which circumstances Bitcoin is secure when the honest majority holds only on expectation.

  3. It also incorporates a third type of nodes; a group of nodes that are unable to follow the protocol - in comparison to the honest and dishonest ones.

  4. In addition, it introduce a parameter c that upper bounds the mining power of the adversary over the mining power of the honest nodes, hence, allowing to clearly capture the correlation between this parameter and the advantage of the adversary when it deviates from the honest protocol execution.

  5. Moreover, network delays are studied as they significantly affect the performance and security. The results show that the upper bound on this third type of nodes heavily depends on the maximum allowed message delay.

  6. Furthermore, message losses are taken into consideration, presenting an analysis of a synchronous model.

AuthorsGeorgia Avarikioti*, Lukas Kappeli*, Yuyi Wang*, and Roger Wattenhofer*,

Affiliations: * ETH.


Security:

1. Paper Title: The Rush Dilemma: Attacking and Repairing Smart Contracts on Forking Blockchains.

Summary: Should I rush sending protocol’s messages based on the current view of the blockchain, or rather wait that a message is confirmed on the chain before sending the next one?

Authors: Vincenzo Botta*, Daniele Friolo†, Daniele Venturi†, and Ivan Visconti*,

Affiliations: * Sapienza University of Rome and † University of Salerno.

2. Paper Title: A Taxonomic Approach to Understanding Emerging Blockchain Identity Management Systems.

Summary: This work breaks down identifier and credential architectures, discusses their reliance to blockchains, and possible combination patterns.

AuthorsLoïc Lesavre*, Priam Varin*, Peter Mell*, Michael Davidson*, and James Shook*,

Affiliations: * NIST.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: HoneyBadgerMPC and AsynchroMix: Practical Asynchronous MPC and its Application to Anonymous Communication.

Summary: A new MPC implementation, HoneyBadgerMPC, that combines a robust online phase with an optimistic offline phase that is efficient enough to run continuously alongside the online phase.

Authors: Donghang Lu†, Thomas Yurek*, Samarth Kulshreshtha*, Rahul Govind*, Rahul Mahadev*, Aniket Kate†, Andrew Miller*,

Affiliations: * University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and † Purdue University.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Kadcast: A Structured Approach to Broadcast in Blockchain Networks.

Summary: A new protocol for fast, efficient, and secure block propagation for the Bitcoin network.

AuthorsElias Rohrer and Florian Tschorsch,

Affiliations: * Technical University of Berlin.

2. Paper Title: On the optionality and fairness of Atomic Swaps.

Summary: This work investigates the unfairness of Atomic Swap and shows that an Atomic Swap is equivalent to a premium-free American Call Option, and Atomic Swap is unfair to the participant.

AuthorsRunchao Han*†, Haoyu Lin, and Jiangshan Yu*,

Affiliations: * Monash University and † CSIRO-Data61


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Blockguard: Adaptive Blockchain Security.

Summary: With adaptive security, this work presents a composite blockguard algorithm that assembles a committee from groups of peers that maintain independent ledgers and a dynamic blockguard algorithm which selects a committee from the processes that most recently wrote to the shared ledger.

Authors: Shishir Rai*, Kendric Hood*, Mikhail Nesterenko*, and Gokarna Sharma*,

Affiliations* Kent State University.

2. Paper Title: HotPoW: Finality from Proof-of-Work Quorums.

Summary: A protocol that finds consensus over a distributed log without requiring predefined identities and can scale at least as well as practical blockchain protocols and much better than Byzantine fault tolerance protocols. 

AuthorsPatrik Keller* and Rainer Böhme*,

Affiliations: * University of Innsbruck.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Industry Competition: The Blockchain Versus Centralized Authority.

Summary: This work provides answers to the widespread questions, such as “Why do we need the blockchain technology even though we already have a centralized intermediary?”

AuthorsJun Aoyagi*,

Affiliations: * University of California, Berkeley.

2. Paper Title: Regulatory Technology - Eight Policy Recommendations.

Summary: This contribution identifies eightpolicy recommendations to inform the development of RegTech.

AuthorsEva Micheler* and Johannes Jiang*,

Affiliations: * London School of Economics.

3. Paper Title: Venture Capital and the Performance of BlockchainTechnology-Based Firms: Evidence from Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs).

Summary: This paper assesses blockchain technology-based firms (BTBFs) post-ICO performance in terms of growth, utilization, and profits and employ econometric methods to control for the endogeneity inherent in VC financing.

AuthorsChristian Fisch* and Paul P. Momtaz†,

Affiliations: * University of Trier and † UCLA.

4. Paper Title: Why Do Public Blockchains Need Formal and Effective Internal Governance Mechanisms?

Summary: This article seeks to critically investigate the internal governance of public blockchain systems.

AuthorsKaren Yeung* and David Galindo*,

Affiliations: * University of Birmingham.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #19

Issue #19


Issue #19

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Map-Z: Exposing the Zcash Network in Times of Transition.

TLDR: 

  1. To date, most research on Zcash concentrates on anonymity and security aspects of the ledger by employing zero-knowledge proofs, however, the Zcash peer-to-peer network has not yet been considered in prior investigations.

  2. Revealing the network topology may render even the best privacy-preserving cryptographic primitives ineffective, if it is possible to link transactions and blocks to specific peers.

  3. This paper provides the first longitudinal measurement study of the Zcash peer-to-peer network and presents a model for topology inference.

  4. The study exposes information about Zcash nodes and their connectivity through observing the its peer-to-peer network from a vantage point over a period of four month (July to October 2018), covering multiple major client and protocol updates.

  5. The empirical data was used to conduct a global analysis of the Zcash network, capture key metrics such as network size, block propagation behavior and timing, mining power distribution, and node churn.

  6. This work also develops a passive topology inference method which exploits the block relay mechanism.

  7. Moreover, this method is tested in a series of real-world experiments with two Zcash network nodes showing a precision of 50% and a recall of 82%, proving its applicability in a real-world setting.

AuthorsErik Daniel*, Elias Rohrer*, Florian Tschorsch*,

Affiliations: * Technical University of Berlin.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Greedy but Cautious: Conditions for Miner Convergence to Resource Allocation Equilibrium.

Summary: This work shows that there exists a resource allocation equilibrium between any two blockchains, which is essentially driven by the fiat value of reward that each chain offers in return for providing security.

AuthorsGeorge Bissias*, Brian N. Levine*, and David Thibodeau†,

Affiliations: * UMass Amherst and † Florida Department of Corrections.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: ZKlaims: Privacy-preserving Attribute-based Credentials using Non-interactive Zero-knowledge Techniques.

Summary: A design and implementation for non-interactive, privacy-preserving credentials through the use of zero-knowledge proofs.

AuthorsMartin Schanzenbach*, Thomas Kilian*, Julian Schütte*, and Christian Banse*,

Affiliations: * Fraunhofer AISEC.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: The Operational Cost of Ethereum Airdrops.

Summary: This work compares the efficiency of bulk transfer approaches on the Ethereum platform, a general problem that became particularly relevant with the uptake of token airdrops.

AuthorsMichael Fröwis* and Rainer Böhme*,

Affiliations: * Universität Innsbruck.


Proofs:

No Papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Another Look at Byzantine Fault Tolerance.

Summary: If there does not exist a reliable broadcast channel, it may be possible to launch an attack on PBFT and an attack on HotStuff so that participants would never reach an agreement on a proposal.

Authors: Yongge Wang*,

Affiliations* UNC Charlotte.

2. Paper Title: On the Round Complexity of Randomized Byzantine Agreement.

Summary: This work presents three lower bounds on the halting probability of randomized BA protocols.

AuthorsRan Cohen*†, Iftach Haitner‡, Nikolaos Makriyannis§, Matan Orland‡, Alex Samorodnitsky✜,

Affiliations: * Boston University, † Northeastern University, ‡ Tel Aviv University, § Technion, and ✜ The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

3. Paper Title: Protocol for Asynchronous, Reliable, Secure and Efficient Consensus (PARSEC) Version 2.0.

Summary: This work proposes an asynchronous BFT protocol which is resilient to 1/3 byzantine nodes.

Authors: Pierre Chevalier*, Bartłomiej Kamiński*, Fraser Hutchison*, Qi Maa, Spandan Sharma*, Andreas Fackler*†, William J Buchanan‡,

Affiliations: * MaidSafe Ltd., † POA Networks Ltd., and Edinburgh Napier University ‡.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Towards an Ontology-Driven Blockchain Design for Supply Chain Provenance.

Summary: This paper addresses the question of why ontologies can contribute to blockchain design.

AuthorsHenry Kim* and Marek Laskowski*,

Affiliations: * York University.

2. Paper Title: How Indigenous Entrepreneurs Can Use Trustless Technology to Rebuild Trust: A Case for Business Process Transformation in Natural Resources Development Using Blockchain.

Summary: This paper posits that those business processes that require participation by Indigenous communities, Natural Resources companies, and different levels of governments who lack trust in each other can be performed more effectively using blockchain technologies.

AuthorsUshnish Sengupta* and Henry Kim†,

Affiliations: * University of Toronto and † York University.

3. Paper Title: Financial Contracting with the Crowd.

Summary: This Article concludes that Congress, the SEC, and the states can couple the traditional VC model with the innovations ICOs offer to think creatively about contractual mechanisms that can create a viable future for equity crowdfunding.

AuthorsUsha Rodrigues*,

Affiliations: * University of Georgia.

4. Paper Title: Is Blockchain the Next Step in the Evolution Chain of [Market] Intermediaries?

Summary: This work delves into this broker-less claim and analyze whether the blockchain needs an intermediary to allow for widespread access to its functionality and whether the blockchain itself is an intermediary.

AuthorsMarcela Gomez*, Pedro Bustamante*, Martin B. H. Weiss*, Ilia Murtazashvili*, Michael J. Madison*, Wilson Law†, Tymofiy Mylovanov*, Herminio Bodon*, and Prashabnt Krishnamurthy*.

Affiliations: * University of Pittsburgh and † Baylor University.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #18

Issue #18


Issue #18

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Bitcontracts: Adding Expressive Smart Contracts to Legacy Cryptocurrencies.

TLDR: 

  1. Many currently popular cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple or Stellar, do not natively support the concept of smart contracts. On the contrary, the ones that do, such as Ethereum, are based on a Turing-complete programming language and are highly restricted.

  2. Previous efforts such as Arbitrum and FastKitten suffer from significant security, deployment, and functional limitations.

  3. Therefore, this work attempts to design a solution that enhances systems like Bitcoin that have no built-in smart contract support and extends the contract execution capabilities of platforms like Ethereum.

  4. It enables contract developers to write contracts in their favorite programming language.

  5. For evaluation purposes, a security analysis is provided and Bitcontracts are implemented to run on Bitcoin, supporting Python contracts.

  6. Finally, to compare the viability of using Bitcontracts in different cryptocurrencies, a comparison of the cost for storing state changes is also discussed.

AuthorsKarl Wüst*, Loris Diana∗, Kari Kostiainen*, Ghassan Karame†, Sinisa Matetic∗, Srdjan Capkun*,

Affiliations: * ETH and † NEC Labs.


Security:

1. Paper Title: k-root-n: An efficient O(√n) algorithm for avoiding short term doublespending in Distributed Ledger Technologies such as Blockchain.

Summary: A scalable low-latency solution which can run in parallel to a global consensus mechanism such as blockchain, protecting against double spending in the short-term, while the n nodes reach consensus on transactions with a lag of some hours from the transaction time.

AuthorsZvi Schreiber*,

Affiliations: * Fizz.


Privacy:

No Papers.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: ACE: Asynchronous and Concurrent Execution of Complex Smart Contracts.

Summary: This work aims to lift execution limits and enable safe execution of more complex smart contracts for permissionless blockchain systems like Ethereum, while maintaining smart contracts’ transparency and good liveness.

AuthorsKarl Wüst*, Sinisa Matetic*, Silvan Egli*, Kari Kostiainen*, and Srdjan Capkun*,

Affiliations: * ETH.


Proofs:

No Papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Ouroboros Chronos: Permissionless Clock Synchronization via Proof-of-Stake.

Summary: A systematic cryptographic study of clock synchronization in the permissionless PoS setting, deviseing a novel protocol based on Ouroboros Genesis

Authors: Christian Badertscher*†, Peter Gaži†, Aggelos Kiayias*†, Alexander Russell‡, and Vassilis Zikas*†,

Affiliations* University of Edinburgh, † IOHK, and ‡ University of Connecticut.

2. Paper Title: Towards a Multi-Chain Future of Proof-of-Space.

Summary: An innovative multi-chain scheme of proof-of-space based on the SpaceMint, built on a combination of a shared proof and a chain-specific proof of storage, which makes the same storage source contributes simultaneously to multiple blockchains, and the cost for an adversary to launch a newborn attack is enormous.

AuthorsShuyang Tang*, Jilai Zheng*, Yao Deng*, Ziyu Wang†, Zhiqiang Liu*, and Dawu Gu*,

Affiliations: * Shanghai Jiao Tong University and † Beihang University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Facebook’s Project Libra: Will Libra Sputter Out or Spur Central Banks to Introduce Their Own Unique Cryptocurrency Projects?

Summary: Facebook’s claim of the Libra Blockchain as a decentralized network is far from reality.

AuthorsJohn Taskinsoy*,

Affiliations: * UNIMAS.

2. Paper Title: Bitcoin Speculation or Value Creation? Corporate Blockchain Investments and Stock Market Reactions.

Summary: This paper examines how investors react to the first publicly available news that a firm is investing in blockchain technology.

AuthorsDon M. Autore*, Nicholas Clarke*, and Danling Jiang†,

Affiliations: * Florida State University and † Stony Brook University.

3. Paper Title: Who is Liable if a Public Cryptocurrency Protocol Fails?

Summary: This paper discusses the failure risks associated with cryptocurrency protocols and the degree to which protocol developers, network participants, and other stakeholders can be held liable for such failures.

AuthorsPeder Østbye*,

Affiliations: * Norges Bank.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #17

Issue #17


Issue #17

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Threshold Logical Clocks for Asynchronous Distributed Coordination and Consensus.

TLDR: 

  1. Tolerating Byzantine node failures and asynchronous network conditions makes consensus protocols complex and fragile, while relying on synchrony assumptions and timeouts can make consensus protocols vulnerable to performance and routing-based attacks.

  2. This work presents a new approach to asynchronous consensus that decomposes the handling of time from the consensus process itself. The protocol is simple, provides clean layering, and requires no common coins or trusted dealers.

  3. Inspired in part by Lamport clocks, vector clocks, and matrix clocks, a new Threshold Logical Clock (TLC) protocol is introduced that synthesizes a virtual notion of time on an asynchronous network and operates in the presence of failed or Byzantine nodes, allowing other protocols such as threshold signing, randomness beacons, and consensus to be built more simply atop it, as if on a synchronous network.

  4. To explore TLC’s capabilities, a “propose, gossip, decide” approach is developed such that participants each (i) propose a potential value to agree on then simply wait a number of TLC time steps, (ii) record and gossip their observations at each step, and finally (ii) decide independently on the basis of public randomness and the history they observed whether the consensus round succeeded and, if so, which value was agreed on.

  5. To handle network asynchrony, including adversarial scheduling, it is sufficient to associate random tickets with each proposed value or block for symmetry-breaking, while ensuring that the network adversary cannot learn the random ticket values until the communication pattern defining the consensus round has been completed and indelibly fixed.

  6. To tolerate f-Byzantine nodes colluding with the network adversary, this work relies on gossip and digital signatures, treating all participants as accountable state machines to handle equivocation and other detectable misbehavior by faulty nodes.

  7. Furthermore, threshold public randomness via secret sharing is used to ensure that the adversary can neither learn nor bias proposal ticket values until the round has completed.

AuthorsBryan Ford*,

Affiliations: * EPFL.


Security:

1. Paper Title: On Analysis of the Bitcoin and Prism Backbone Protocols.

Summary: This work proves a blockchain growth property and a blockchain quality property of the leader sequence in the Prism protocol showing that the leader sequence is permanent with high probability after sufficient amount of wait time.

AuthorsJing Li* and Dongning Guo*,

Affiliations: * Northwestern University.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: TICK: Tiny Client for Blockchains.

Summary: The first blockchain system that gives the ability of transaction verification to light client that only needs to download a constant and small size of data.

AuthorsWei Zhang*, Jiangshan Yu†, and Qingqiang He* and Nan Guan*,

Affiliations: * The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and † Monash University.

2. Paper Title: STAKECUBE: Combining Sharding and Proof-of-Stake to build Fork-free Secure Permissionless Distributed Ledgers.

Summary: A new blockchain protocol which aims at improving scalability of the block-wise Byzantine agreement approach by combining sharding techniques, users presence and stake transfer to operate in a PoS setting.

AuthorsAntoine Durand*, Emmanuelle Anceaume†, and Romaric Ludinard‡,

Affiliations: * IRT SystemX, † CNRS, and ‡ IMT Atlantique.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Towards a Verified Model of the Algorand Consensus Protocol in Coq.

Summary: This work develops a model in Coq of the Algorand consensus protocol and outlines the specification and formal proof of its asynchronous safety opening up many possibilities for further formal verification of the protocol, most directly of liveness properties.

Authors: Musab A. Alturki*, Jing Chen†, Victor Luchangco†, Brandon Moore*, Karl Palmskog‡, Lucas Peña§, and Grigore Roşu§,

Affiliations* Runtime Verification, † Algorand, ‡ The University of Texas at Austin, and § University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Riding the Blockchain Mania: Public Firms’ Speculative 8-K Disclosures.

Summary: This paper documents a sharp increase in corporate Blockchain disclosures through 8-K filings during a Blockchain mania.

AuthorsStephanie F. Cheng*, Gus De Franco*, Haibo Jiang*, and Pengkai Lin*,

Affiliations: * Tulane University.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain Development and Fiduciary Duty.

Summary: This work argues that public blockchain protocol developers do not function as corporate fiduciaries, and further that labeling protocol developers as fiduciaries would be impractical and have other negative effects including potentially destroying the open source production model.

AuthorsRaina Haque*, Rodrigo Seira†, Brent Plummer*, and Nelson Rosario‡,

Affiliations: * Wake Forest University, † DLx Law, and ‡ Chicago-Kent.

3. Paper Title: Decentralized Finance: Blockchain Technology and the Quest for an Open Financial System.

Summary: Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Libra have jumpstarted the movement of decentralized finance, which leverages blockchain technology to create a new financial system that is decentralized, open, permissionless, and borderless.

AuthorsYan Chen*,

Affiliations: * Stevens Institute of Technology.

4. Paper Title: Blockchain: Introduction and Application in Financial Accounting.

Summary: This study sheds light on the potential application of blockchain technology in financial accounting and its possible impacts.

AuthorsTing YuZhiwei Stanley Lin† Qingliang Tang‡,

Affiliations: * University of Manchester, † Shenzhen University, and ‡ Western Sydney University.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #16

Issue #16


Issue #16

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Pay-To-Win: Incentive Attacks on Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies.

TLDR: 

  1. The first comprehensive systematization of incentive attacks (bribing attacks and similar techniques) within permissionless proof-of-work cryptocurrencies.

  2. The purpose is to highlight unconsidered attack types and present new and improved techniques that address several of these open questions, in an effort to fill some gaps.

  3. First, a comparison and categorization of the varying system models of previously proposed attacks is presented along with interesting observations.

  4. Next, three new pay-to-win incentive attacks are introduced that are trustless, both for the attacker and the collaborating miners, and do not require the adversary to control any hash rate.

  5. Each attack is then thoroughly explained by presenting (i) a general overview of the attack, (ii) a step-by-step description, (iv) attack evaluations, and (v) analysis of the attack properties.

  6. With this research, it is demonstrated that the hash rate distribution among permissionless PoW based cryptocurrencies does not play a central role in defining the underlying security guarantees. 

  7. In face, the ratio of rational miners and available funds for performing bribes also form a key component that demands further study.

AuthorsAljosha Judmayer*, Nicholas Stifter†, Alexei Zamyatin‡, Itay Tsabary§˖, Ittay Eyal§˖, Peter Gazi✜, Sarah Meiklejohn☥, and Edgar Weippl*,

Affiliations: * SBA Research, † TU Wien, ‡ Imperial College London, § Technion, ˖IC3, ✜ IOHK and ☥ University College London.


Security:

1. Paper Title: A Composable Security Treatment of the Lightning Network.

Summary: The first complete security analysis of the lightning network in the universal composition (UC) setting.

AuthorsAggelos Kiayias*† and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos*,

Affiliations: * University of Edinburgh and † IOHK.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Towards a formally verified implementation of the MimbleWimble cryptocurrency protocol.

Summary: This work puts forward elements that constitute essential steps towards the development of an exhaustive formalization of the MimbleWimble cryptocurrency protocol, the analysis of its properties and the verification of its implementations.

AuthorsGustavo Betarte*, Maximiliano Cristiá†, Carlos Luna*, Adrián Silveira*, and Dante Zanarini†,

Affiliations: * Universidad de la República and † Universidad Nacional de Rosario.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Metamorphic IOTA.

Summary: A new metamorphic algorithm for tip selection by approving left behind tips, and improving confidence within the main tangle that offers the best guaranties of both IOTA and G-IOTA.

AuthorsGewu Bu*†‡, Wassim Hana*†‡, and Maria Potop-Butucaru*†‡,

Affiliations: * Sorbonne University, † CNRS, and ‡ LIP6.


Proofs:

No Papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Cryptocurrency Egalitarianism: A Quantitative Approach.

Summary: The first work to provide a quantitative evaluation of cryptocurrency egalitarianism and a treatment of this property that acts as the foundation for comparing cryptocurrency fairness when it comes to reward distribution.

Authors: Dimitris Karakostas*‡, Aggelos Kiayias*‡, Christos Nasikas†§, and Dionysis Zindros†‡,

Affiliations* University of Edinburgh, † University of Athens, ‡ IOHK, and § “ATHENA” Research Center.

2. Paper Title: Fair Byzantine Agreements for Blockchains.

Summary: This work presents a novel notion called for Byzantine agreement and then propose a fair, responsive and partition-resilient Byzantine agreement protocol tolerating up to 1/3 corruptions.

AuthorsTzu-Wei Chao*, Hao Chung*, and Po-Chun Kuo*,

Affiliations: * Taipei, Taiwan.

3. Paper Title: STAKEDAG: Stake-Based Consensus for Scalable Trustless Systems.

Summary: This paper proposes a new family of consensus protocols that uses Proof of Stake to achieve more scalable and robust consensus in a DAG.

Authors: Quan Nguyen*, Andre Cronje*, Michael Kong*, Alex Kampa*, and George Samman*,

Affiliations: * FANTOM.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Sending a Bit More Coin Home? An Analysis of Retail User Protection in Bitcoin Remittance Markets.

Summary: This paper examines the use of Bitcoin in money remittance markets as a specific illustration of wider emerging issues relating to the use of cryptocurrencies.

AuthorsJared Cotton*,

Affiliations: * Victoria University of Wellington.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs): A New Way of Crowdfunding.

Summary: The objective of this study is to investigate the potential advantages and challenges of blockchain technology and ICOs, and how they are going to affect the entrepreneurial environment.

AuthorsPierluigi Martino*, Cristiano Bellavitis†, and Carlos M. DaSilva‡§,

Affiliations: * University of Pisa, † Auckland Business School, ‡ Thunderbird, and § University of Ljubljana.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

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