This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #108

Issue #108


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Issue #108

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Securing Parallel-chain Protocols under Variable Mining Power.

TLDR:

  1. Several emerging proof-of-work (PoW) blockchain protocols rely on a “parallel-chain” architecture for scaling, where instead of a single chain, multiple chains are run in parallel and aggregated.

  2. A key requirement of practical PoW blockchains is to adapt to mining power variations over time (Bitcoin’s total mining power has increased by a 10^14 factor over the decade).

  3. This paper considers the design of provably secure parallel-chain protocols which can adapt to such mining power variations.

  4. The Bitcoin difficulty adjustment rule adjusts the difficulty target of block mining periodically to get a constant mean inter-block time.

  5. While superficially simple, the rule has proved itself to be sophisticated and successfully secure, both in practice and in theory.

  6. This paper shows that natural adaptations of the Bitcoin adjustment rule to the parallel-chain case open the door to subtle, but catastrophic safety and liveness breaches.

  7. It uncovers a meta-design principle that allows to design variable mining difficulty protocols for three popular PoW blockchain proposals (Prism, OHIE, Fruitchains) inside a common rubric.

AuthorsXuechao Wang*, Viswa Virinchi Muppirala†, Lei Yang‡, Sreeram Kannan†, and Pramod Viswanath*.

Affiliations: * University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign,† University of Washington at Seattle, and ‡ MIT CSAIL.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Reentrancy Vulnerability Identification in Ethereum Smart Contracts.

Summary: A framework that combines static and dynamic analysis to detect Reentrancy vulnerabilities in Ethereum smart contracts.

Authors: Noama Fatima Samreen* and Manar H. Alalfi*,

Affiliations* Ryerson University.

2. Paper Title: T-Cash: Transferable Fiat Backed Coins.

Summary: A transferable electronic cash scheme using blockchain technology which allows users to continuously reuse coins within the system.

Authors: Hitesh Tewari*,

Affiliations* Trinity College Dublin.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Holistic Privacy and Usability of a Cryptocurrency Wallet.

Summary: The problems associated with the usability of cryptocurrency wallets, such as those used by ZCash, for end-users.

Authors: Harry Halpin*,

Affiliations* Nym Technologies.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: A DLT-based Smart Contract Architecture for Atomic and Scalable Trading.

Summary: A protocol that combines a hierarchical smart contract infrastructure with state channels to increase scalability of an underlying DLT system.

Authors: Jan Kalbantner*, Konstantinos Markantonakis*, Darren Hurley-Smith*, Carlton Shepherd*, and Benjamin Semal*,

Affiliations* University of London.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: An Algebraic Framework for Universal and Updatable SNARKs.

Summary: A new information theoretic inter- active proof system in which the prover shows that a vector has been sampled in a subspace according to the verifier’s coins.

Authors: Carla Rafols*† and Arantxa Zapico*†

Affiliations* Pompeu Fabra University and † Cybercat.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Making Synchronous BFT Protocols Secure in the Presence of Mobile Sluggish Faults.

Summary: This work investigates the support for mobile sluggish faults in existing synchronous protocols such as Dfinity, Streamlet, Sync HotStuff, OptSync and the optimal latency BFT protocol.

Authors: Justin Kim*, Vandan Mehta†, Kartik Nayak‡, and Nibesh Shrestha§,

Affiliations* Montgomery High School, † Rutgers University, ‡ Duke University, and § Rochester Institute of Technology.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Cyclic Arbitrage in Decentralized Exchange Markets.

Summary: Cyclic arbitrages in Decentralized Exchanges (DEXes) of cryptocurrencies with transaction-level data on Uniswap V2, observing 285,127 cyclic arbitrages over eight months.

AuthorsYe Wang*, Yan Chen†, Shuiguang Deng†, and Roger Wattenhofer*,

Affiliations: * ETH Zurich and † Zhejiang University.

2. Paper Title: Lightning Network Economics: Channels.

Summary: This paper (i) identifies conditions for two parties to optimally establish a channel, (ii) finds explicit formulas for channel costs, (iii) obtains the optimal collaterals and savings entailed, and (iv) derives the implied reduction in congestion of the blockchain. 

AuthorsPaolo Guasoni*, Gur Huberman†,  and Clara Shikhelman‡,

Affiliations: * Dublin City University, † Columbia Business School, and ‡ Chaincode Labs.

3. Paper Title: An economic theory of blockchain foundations.

Summary: The treasury foundations manage is a moat to raise the cost of exit or forking because the benefit of the fund is only available to those who stay with the chain.

AuthorsDarcy Allen*, Chris Berg*, Sinclair Davidson*, Trent MacDonald*, and Jason Potts*

Affiliations: * RMIT University.


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The internet is humanity’s superpower, and they’re making it more dependable, equitable, and secure. Join the Protocol Labs team!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #107

Issue #107


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Issue #107

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Targeting the Weakest Link: Social Engineering Attacks in Ethereum Smart Contracts.

TLDR:

  1. This work explores the possibility and existence of new social engineering attacks beyond smart contract honeypots.

  2. It presents two novel classes of Ethereum social engineering attacks — Address Manipulation and Homograph — and develops six zero-day social engineering attacks.

  3. To show how the attacks can be used in popular programming patterns, it conducts a case study of five popular smart contracts with combined market capitalization exceeding $29 billion, and integrates the attack patterns in their source codes without altering their existing functionality.

  4. Moreover, it shows that these attacks remain dormant during the test phase but activates their malicious logic only at the final production deployment.

  5. The work further analyzes 85,656 open-source smart contracts, and discovers that 1,027 of them can be used for the proposed social engineering attacks.

  6. It conducts a professional opinion survey with experts from seven smart contract auditing firms, corroborating that the exposed social engineering attacks bring a major threat to the smart contract systems.

AuthorsNikolay Ivanov*, Jianzhi Lou*, Ting Chen†, Jin Li†, and Qiben Yan*,

Affiliations: * Michigan State University and † Guangzhou University.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Forward-secure Multi-user Aggregate Signatures with Constant Complexities using Recursive zk-SNARKs.

Summary: A forward secure aggregate signature scheme utilizing recursive zk-SNARKs, whose all metrics including size and time have O(1).

Authors: Jeonghyuk Lee*, Jihye Kim†, and Hyunok Oh*

Affiliations* Hanyang University and † Kookmin University.

2. Paper Title: Accountable Fine-grained Blockchain Rewriting in the Permissionless Setting.

Summary: A new framework of accountable fine-grained blockchain rewriting that requires no trust assumptions.

Authors: Yangguang Tian, Bowen LiuYingjiu LiPawel Szalachowski, and Jianying Zhou,

Affiliations* Osaka University, † Singapore University of Technology and Design, and ‡ University of Oregon.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: ReTRACe: Revocable and Traceable Blockchain Rewrites using Attribute-based Cryptosystems.

Summary: A blockchain transaction rewriting framework building on a novel revocable chameleon hash with ephemeral trapdoor scheme and a novel revocable CP-ABE scheme.

Authors: Gaurav Panwar*, Roopa Vishwanathan*, and Satyajayant Misra*,

Affiliations* New Mexico State University.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: ethSTARK Documentation – Version 1.1.

Summary: This document is intended to accompany the ethSTARK codebase, describing the computational integrity statement proved by that code and the specific STARK construction used to prove the statement.

Authors: StarkWare Team*,

Affiliations* StarkWare.


Consensus:

No papers.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: DeFiRanger: Detecting Price Manipulation Attacks on DeFi Applications.

Summary: Detection of two types of new attacks on DeFi apps, including direct and indirect price manipulation attacks.

AuthorsSiwei Wu*, Dabao Wang*, Jianting He*, Yajin Zhou*, Lei Wu*, Xingliang Yuan†, Qinming He*, and Kui Ren*,

Affiliations: * Zhejiang University and † Monash University.

2. Paper Title: Soft Power: Upgrading Chain Macroeconomic Policy Through Soft Forks.

Summary: The proposed mechanism works in today’s Ethereum blockchain without any changes and can support a very generic class of monetary policies that satisfy a few basic bounds.

AuthorsDionysis Zindros*,

Affiliations: * University of Athens.

3. Paper Title: Sovereign digital currencies: Reshaping the design of money and payments systems.

Summary: This work considers the policy issues and choices associated with cryptocurrencies, stablecoins and sovereign digital currencies and emphasises that there is no single model for sovereign digital currency design.

AuthorsRoss P. Buckley*, Douglas W. Arner†, Dirk A. Zetzsche‡, Anton N. Didenko,* and Lucien J. van Romburg†,

Affiliations: * University of New South Wales, † The University of Hong Kong, and ‡ Universite du Luxembourg.


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Protocol Labs is an open-source research, development, and deployment laboratory. Projects include IPFS, Filecoin, libp2p, and many more. Protocol Labs aims to make human existence orders of magnitude better through technology. 

The internet is humanity’s superpower, and they’re making it more dependable, equitable, and secure. Join the Protocol Labs team!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #106

Issue #106


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Issue #106

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: SnarkPack: Practical SNARK Aggregation.

TLDR:

  1. This work presents and implements an argument for aggregating n Groth16 zkSNARKs with a O(log n) proof size and verifier time.

  2. The techniques are inspired from the inner pairing product argument introduced by Bünz et al. with the difference that the final scheme does not require a different trusted setup, but it reuses the one from the pairing-based SNARK that it aggregates.

  3. The key tool for the proposed construction is a new commitment scheme that allows to instantiate the inner product pairing argument of Bünz et al. by using existing powers of tau ceremony transcripts.

  4. The work also describes a scheme that merges together a multi-exponentiation argument and an inner pairing product argument for some common randomness vector with minimal overhead.

  5. Then it applies some optimisations to the protocol and illustrates it’s efficiency by implementing it.

  6. SnarkPack can aggregate 1024 proofs in 2s and verify them in 33ms, including un-serialization time, yielding a verification mechanism that is exponentially faster than batching.

AuthorsNicolas Gailly*, Mary Maller†, and Anca Nitulescu*

Affiliations: * Protocol Labs and † Ethereum Fondation.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Vulnerabilities and Open Issues of Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping.

Summary: This paper conducts a systematic literature mapping identifying initiatives and tools to analyze SCs and how to deal with the identified vulnerabilities.

Authors: Gabriel de Sousa Matsumura*, Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos*, Arlindo Flavio da Conceicao†, and Nandamudi Lankalapalli Vijaykumar†,

Affiliations* Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sao Paulo and † Federal University of Sao Paulo.

2. Paper Title: SoK: Exploring Blockchains Interoperability.

Summary: This paper presents a Systematization of Knowledge for the existing efforts on blockchains interoperability.

Authors: Gang Wang*,

Affiliations* University of Connecticut.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: MatRiCT+: More Efficient Post-Quantum Private Blockchain Payments.

Summary: A practical RingCT protocol based on post-quantum lattice assumptions.

Authors: Muhammed F. Esgin*†, Ron Steinfeld*, and Raymond K. Zhao*,

Affiliations* Monash University and † CSIRO’s Data61.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: On Simulation-Extractability of Universal zkSNARKs.

Summary: A class of computationally special-sound interactive proofs of knowledge that are zero- knowledge in the standard model and have a unique response property are simulation-extractable out-of- the box in the Random Oracle model when the Fiat–Shamir transformation is applied to them.

Authors: Markulf Kohlweiss*† and Michał Zając

Affiliations* University of Edinburgh, † IOHK, and ‡ Clearmatics.

2. Paper Title: Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge from Sub-exponential DDH.

Summary: The first constructions of non-interactive zero-knowledge and Zap arguments for NP based on the sub-exponential hardness of Decisional Diffie-Hellman against polynomial time adversaries (without use of groups with pairings).

Authors: Abhishek Jain* and Zhengzhong Jin*,

Affiliations* Johns Hopkins University.


Consensus:

No papers.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Decentralized Finance: Regulating Cryptocurrency Exchanges.

Summary: This Article proposes that regulators introduce formal registration obligations for cryptocurrency intermediaries —the exchange platforms that provide a marketplace for secondary market trading.

AuthorsKristin N. Johnson*,

Affiliations: * Emory University.


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Protocol Labs is an open-source research, development, and deployment laboratory. Projects include IPFS, Filecoin, libp2p, and many more. Protocol Labs aims to make human existence orders of magnitude better through technology. 

The internet is humanity’s superpower, and they’re making it more dependable, equitable, and secure. Join the Protocol Labs team!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #105

Issue #105


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Issue #105

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Virtual Art and Non-fungible Tokens.

TLDR:

  1. During early 2021 reports emerged of newfound excitement in the art world as a landmark sale of digital art for $ 69 million takes place.

  2. Fueled in part by the wealth recently created from digital currencies, major art dealers such as Christie’s and Sotheby’s embrace this new development.

  3. What then are nonfungible tokens, how is this related to the blockchain and what do we know about this ancient market for digital art?

  4. It now appears that digital art can be added to the growing list of uses for blockchain technology now becoming a part of modern life.

  5. This article first discusses the new and explosive market for digital art and it explores the evolution of the digital world and virtual property.

  6. It explores nonfungible tokens and presents a few thoughts about the future of digital property.

  7. This dramatic extention of blockchain and other digital technology to the world of art and music represents a new and exciting platform for creative expression.

AuthorsLawrence J. Trautman*,

Affiliations: * Prairie View A&M University.


Security:

1. Paper Title: TSGN: Transaction Subgraph Networks for Identifying Ethereum Phishing Accounts.

Summary: A novel transaction subgraph network (TSGN) model for phishing account identification.

Authors: Jinhuan Wang*, Pengtao Chen*, Shanqing Yu*, and Qi Xuan*†,

Affiliations* Zhejiang University of Technology and † Peng Cheng Laboratory.

2. Paper Title: SAILFISH: Vetting Smart Contract State-Inconsistency Bugs in Seconds.

Summary: A scalable system for automatically finding state-inconsistency bugs in smart contracts.

Authors: Priyanka Bose, Dipanjan Das, Yanju Chen, Yu Feng, Christopher Kruegel, and Giovanni Vigna*,

Affiliations* UC Santa Barbara.

3. Paper Title: Ponzi Scheme Detection in Ethereum Transaction Network.

Summary: This work collects transaction records from Ethereum and detects Ponzi schemes from a network perspective.

Authors: Shanqing Yu*, Jie Jin*, Yunyi Xie*, Jie Shen*, and Qi Xuan*†,

Affiliations* Zhejiang University of Technology and † Peng Cheng Laboratory.

4. Paper Title: A Tractable Probabilistic Approach to Analyze Sybil Attacks in Sharding-Based Blockchain Protocols.

Summary: A probabilistic approach to analyze the security of sharding-based blockchain protocols.

Authors: Abdelatif Hafid*, Abdelhakim Senhaji Hafid*, and Mustapha Samih*,

AffiliationsUniversity of Montreal and † University of Moulay Ismail.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: zkHawk: Practical Private Smart Contracts from MPC-based Hawk.

Summary: The protocol presented above facilitates Interactive Private Smart Contracts (I-PSC) wherein an Interactive protocol (MPC) between the parties is executed replacing the manager in Hawk in order to determine the outcome of the smart contract and reach consensus on the payout distribution.

Authors: Aritra Banerjee*, Michael Clear*, and Hitesh Tewari*,

Affiliations* Trinity College Dublin.

2. Paper Title: Private Liquidity Matching using MPC.

Summary: A privacy preserving netting protocol to solve the gridlock resolution problem in Real Time Gross Settlement systems.

Authors: Shahla Atapoor*, Nigel P. Smart*†, and Younes Talibi Alaoui*,

Affiliations* KU Leuven and † University of Bristol.

3. Paper Title: Bitcoin Address Clustering Method Based on Multiple Heuristic Conditions.

Summary: This work analyzes the associations between Bitcoin transactions and addresses to cluster address and further find groups of addresses controlled by the same entity.

Authors: He Xi*, He Ketai*, Lin Shenwen†, Yang Jinglin†, and Mao Hongliang†

Affiliations* University of Science and Technology Beijing and † CNCERT/CC.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: TurboIKOS: Improved Non-interactive Zero Knowledge and Post-Quantum Signatures.

Summary: A zero knowledge argument for general arithmetic circuits that is public-coin and constant rounds, so it can be made non-interactive and publicly verifiable with the Fiat-Shamir heuristic.

Authors: Yaron Gvili*, Julie Ha†, Sarah Scheffler†, Mayank Varia†, Ziling Yang†, and Xinyuan Zhang‡,

Affiliations* Cryptomnium LLC, † Boston University, and ‡ George Mason University.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: Modeling and control of decision-making of miners in blockchain.

Summary: A dynamical model of the decision-making of miners in the blockchain.

Authors: Kosuke Toda*, Naomi Kuze*, and Toshimitsu Ushio*

Affiliations* Osaka University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Non-Fungible Tokens: Blockchains, Scarcity, and Value.

Summary: How valuable is an NFT in reality? It is as valuable as people express a willingness to pay for it.

AuthorsUsman W. Chohan*,

Affiliations: * UNSW Business School.


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Protocol Labs is an open-source research, development, and deployment laboratory. Projects include IPFS, Filecoin, libp2p, and many more. Protocol Labs aims to make human existence orders of magnitude better through technology. 

The internet is humanity’s superpower, and they’re making it more dependable, equitable, and secure. Join the Protocol Labs team!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #104

Issue #104


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Issue #104

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Tokenized: The Law of Non-Fungible Tokens and Unique Digital Property.

TLDR:

  1. Markets for unique digital property—digital equivalents of rare artworks, collectible trading cards, and other assets that gain value from scarcity—have exploded in the past several months.

  2. At root is the next iteration of blockchain technology, unique digital assets called non-fungible tokens.

  3. NFTs have grown from a few early breakout successes to a rapidly developing market for unique digital treasures. The attraction to buyers is that unlike digital assets like e-books or licensed movies, NFTs can be bought, sold, displayed, gifted, or even destroyed just like personal property.

  4. Yet law has not kept pace with demand for unique digital property. In particular, the rules designed for the 2000s internet focused on expanding intellectual property licenses and online contracts to the point that we are mere users, not owners, of digital assets. 

  5. This article proposes a clear path for the evolution of the legal underpinnings of NFTs. It argues that NFTs are personal property, not contracts (despite the “smart contracts” popular nomenclature) or pure intellectual property licenses (despite the currently governing law of digital assets like e-books).

  6. Because transactions in NFTs are in the form of a sale, the law of sales of personal property should apply.

  7. And finally, the article notes that NFTs will serve as a powerful grounding example of digital personal property, a legal form of ownership that is both sorely needed and has not yet been clearly established online.

  8. That example will ground others, and permit law to again characterize those who buy scarce and valuable digital assets as true owners rather than mere users.

AuthorsJoshua Fairfield*

Affiliations: * Washington and Lee University.


Security:

1. Paper Title: EtherClue: Digital investigation of attacks on Ethereum smart contracts.

Summary: Indicators of Compromise (IoCs) defined over the side-effects of Ethereum smart contract execution is an effective way to identify exploit transactions.

Authors: Simon Joseph Aquilina*, Fran Casino†‡, Mark Vella*, Joshua Ellul*, and Constantinos Patsakis†‡,

Affiliations* University of Malta and † University of Piraeus, and ‡ Athena Research Center.

1. Paper Title: Ethereum Name Service: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

Summary: Several security issues and misbehaviors including traditional DNS security issues and new issues introduced by ENS smart contracts.

Authors: Pengcheng Xia*, Haoyu Wang*, Zhou Yu*, Xinyu Liu*, Xiapu Luo†, and Guoai Xu*,

Affiliations* Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications and † The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: LightPIR: Privacy-Preserving Route Discovery for Payment Channel Networks.

Summary: An approach which allows a source to efficiently discover a shortest path to its destination without revealing any information about the endpoints of the transaction.

Authors: Krzysztof Pietrzak*, Iosif Salem†, Stefan Schmid*† , Michelle Yeo*, 

Affiliations* IST Austria and † University of Vienna.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: RandChain: Practical Scalable Decentralized Randomness Attested by Blockchain.

Summary: A decentralized random beacon protocol designed to provide continuous randomness at regular intervals and provides guaranteed output delivery.

Authors: Gang Wang* and Mark Nixon†

Affiliations* University of Connecticut and † Emerson Automation Solutions.

2. Paper Title: RepShard: Reputation-based Sharding Scheme Achieves Linearly Scaling Efficiency and Security Simultaneously.

Summary: This work adopts a two-layer hierarchical chain structure, consisting of a reputation chain and independent transaction chains.

Authors: Gang Wang*

Affiliations* University of Connecticut.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

No papers.


Tokenomics:

Check out paper of the week.


Upcoming Events:


Jobs:


Thanks to our sponsor

Protocol Labs

Protocol Labs is an open-source research, development, and deployment laboratory. Projects include IPFS, Filecoin, libp2p, and many more. Protocol Labs aims to make human existence orders of magnitude better through technology. 

The internet is humanity’s superpower, and they’re making it more dependable, equitable, and secure. Join the Protocol Labs team!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

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