This Week in Blockchain Research Issue # 29

Issue #29


Issue #29

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Against Quantum Adversaries.

TLDR:

  1. This work models quantum attackers in the context of the Bitcoin backbone protocol.

  2. Next, it extracts sufficient conditions imposed on the number of PoWs an adversary can solve within s rounds in order for the common prefix and chain quality properties to hold.

  3. Using the presented model, bounds are obtained on the expected number of PoWs within s rounds that any quantum adversary can achieve. This is then used to get an “honest majority” condition.

  4. New concentration theorems (extending Chernoff bound and proving a generalised version of Azuma’s inequality) are then derived.

  5. Using (old and new) concentration results applied to the presented model for quantum attackers, a complete analysis of the Bitcoin backbone protocol is introduced by giving a tight characterization of the overwhelming probabilities that the properties hold with.

  6. The results of this paper prove that the protocol’s essential properties stand in the post-quantum setting assuming a suitably bounded Quantum adversary in the Quantum Random Oracle (QRO) model.

  7. Specifically, the results imply that security can be shown by bounding the quantum queries so that each quantum query is worth O(p^{−1/2}) classical ones and that the wait time for safe settlement is expanded by a multiplicative factor of O(p^{−1/6}), where p is the probability of success of a single classical query to the protocol’s underlying hash function.

AuthorsAlexandru Cojocaru* , Juan Garay† , Aggelos Kiayias*‡ , Fang Song† , Petros Wallden*,

Affiliations: * University of Edinburgh, † Texas A&M University, and ‡ IOHK.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Coded Merkle Tree: Solving Data Availability Attacks in Blockchains.

Summary: A novel hash accumulator that offers a constant-cost protection against data availability attacks in blockchains, even if the majority of the network nodes are malicious.

AuthorsMingchao Yu*, Saeid Sahraei*, Songze Li†, Salman Avestimehr*, Sreeram Kannan†‡, and Pramod Viswanath†§,

Affiliations: * University of Southern California, † Trifecta Blockchain, ‡ University of Washington Seattle, and § University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

2. Paper Title: LockDown: Balance Availability Attack against Lightning Network Channels.

Summary: This work uncovers the possibility of balance lockdown due to misbehaving nodes associated with a given channel.

AuthorsCristina Pérez-Solà*§, Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa†, Jordi Herrera-Joancomart퇧, Guillermo Navarro-Arribas‡§, Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro✜􏰀,

Affiliations: * Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, † University of Sydney, ‡ Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, § CYBERCAT-Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia􏰀, ✜ Institut Polytechnique de Paris, CNRS Samovar.

3. Paper Title: A Data Science Approach for Honeypot Detection in Ethereum.

Summary: A step by step methodology to obtain, process and analyze Ethereum contract transactions for the task of honeypot detection.

AuthorsRamiro Camino*, Christof Ferreira Torres*, and Radu State*,

Affiliations: * University of Luxembourg.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: BLAZE: Practical Lattice-Based Blind Signatures for Privacy-Preserving Applications.

Summary: A new practical blind signature scheme from lattice assumptions conjectured to withstand quantum computer attacks.

AuthorsNabil Alkeilani Alkadri*, Rachid El Bansarkhani†, and Johannes Buchmann*,

Affiliations: * Technische Universität Darmstadt and † QuantiCor Security GmbH.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Fairness and Efficiency in DAG-based Cryptocurrencies.

Summary: A new theoretical framework that captures a large family of DAG-based ledger implementations.

AuthorsGeorgios Birmpas*, Elias Koutsoupias*, Philip Lazos†, and Francisco J. Marmolejo-Cossío*,

Affiliations: * University of Oxford and † Sapienza University of Rome.

2. Paper Title: PubChain: A Decentralized Open-Access Publication Platform with Participants Incentivized by Blockchain Technology.

Summary: To overcome the drawbacks and limitations of existing publication platforms such as Nature Publishing Group, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Elsevier of RELX Group and Springer-Verlag, this work exploits recent advances in decentralized technologies (i.e., blockchain, IPFS) to design a decentralized open-access publication platform.

AuthorsTaotao Wang*, Soung Chang Liew†, and Shengli Zhang*,

Affiliations: * Shenzhen University and † The Chinese University of Hong Kong.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Proof-of-Stake Longest Chain Protocols Revisited.

Summary: This paper demonstrates a new, and fatal, attack on a protocol, motivating the design of a new family of Nakamoto-style longest chain PoS protocols, with a formal proof of their security against all possible attacks in a general security model.

Authors: Xuechao Wang*, Govinda Kamath†, Vivek Bagaria†, Sreeram Kannan‡, Sewoong Oh‡, David Tse†, Pramod Viswanath*,

Affiliations* University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, † Stanford University, and ‡University of Washington.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Platform Tokenization: Financing, Governance, and Moral Hazard.

Summary: This paper studies how tokenization, that is, token financing plus decentralized governance, affects moral hazard frictions between founders, investors, and users of a platform.

AuthorsJiri Chod*, Nikolaos Trichakis†, and S. Alex Yang‡,

Affiliations: * Boston College, † MIT, and ‡ London Business School.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain Technology for Environmental Compliance: Towards A 'Choral' Approach.

Summary: This Article examines the impact that blockchain technology could have on monitoring compliance with environmental regulations, rendering the process much more efficient thanks to its greater involvement of various non-public actors, including regulated entities and the general public.

AuthorsMiriam Allena*,

Affiliations: * Bocconi University.

3. Paper Title: Blockchain and the evolution of institutional technologies: Implications for innovation policy.

Summary: This paper presents a novel evolutionary economic model of institutional innovation by focussing the selection mechanism on the cost of contracting and thus furnishing a dynamic model of institutional evolution.

AuthorsDarcy W.E. Allen*, Chris Berg*, Brendan Markey-Towler*, Mikayla Novak*, and Jason Potts*,

Affiliations: * Blockchain Innovation Hub, RMIT University.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #28

Issue #28


Issue #28

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Proof-of-Burn.

TLDR:

  1. Proof-of-burn has been used as a mechanism to destroy cryptocurrency in a verifiable manner and has not been previously formally studied as a primitive.

  2. This work introduces proof-of-burn as a cryptographic primitive for the first time and defines it as a protocol which consists of two algorithms: (i) a burn address generator and (ii) a burn address verifier.

  3. While performing the study, foundational properties such as unspendabilitybinding, and uncensorability are considered.

  4. Next, a novel and simple construction which is flexible and can be adapted for use in existing cryptocurrencies is presented.

  5. This construction is proven secure in the Random Oracle and requires cryptocurrencies to use public key hashes for address generation.

  6. Following that, a cryptocurrency proof-of-burn bootstrapping mechanism is presented that does not require miners to connect to external blockchain networks.

  7. This work is validated through a comprehensively tested production grade implementation of the bootstrapping mechanism in Ethereum written in Solidity, which is also available as open source software.

  8. In addition, experimental measurements for the cost of burn verification are presented in current Ethereum prices showing that burn verification costs $0.28 per transaction.

AuthorsKostis Karantias*, Aggelos Kiayias*‡, and Dionysis Zindros*†,

Affiliations: * IOHK, † University of Athens, and ‡ University of Edinburgh.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Encrypted Distributed Hash Tables.

Summary: This work initiates the study of end-to-end encryption in DHTs and the many systems they support.

AuthorsArchita Agarwal* and Seny Kamara*

Affiliations: * Brown University.

2. Paper Title: Short Paper: Towards Characterizing Sybil Attacks in Cryptocurrency Mixers.

Summary: A closer look at Sybil attacks within the context of mixers in an attempt to characterize such attacks.

Authors: Mikerah Quintyne-Collins*,

Affiliations: * HashCloak Inc.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Anonymous Transactions with Revocation and Auditing in Hyperledger Fabric.

Summary: A private transaction authorization in Hyperledger Fabric based on delegatable anonymous credentials.

AuthorsDmytro Bogatov*, Angelo De Caro†, Kaoutar Elkhiyaoui†, and Bjorn Tackmann‡,

Affiliations: * Boston University, † IBM Research - Zurich, and ‡ DFINITY.

2. Paper Title: Applications on traceable range proofs from fully regulatable privacy-preserving blockchains.

Summary: Multiple modifications and applications on traceable Borromean range proof (T-BoRP) and traceable Bulletproofs range proof (TBuRP), which realize functionalities including multi-currency regulation, regulatable private assets transfer, auxiliary privacy calculation and secure joint regulation by usage of zero-knowledge proofs, homomorphic commitments and MPC protocols.

AuthorsWulu Li*, Lei Chen*, Xin Lai*, Xiao Zhang*, and Jiajun Xin*,

Affiliations: * Onething.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Cerberus Channels: Incentivizing Watchtowers for Bitcoin.

Summary: An extension of Lightning channels, reward watchtowers that can remain secure against bribing and collusion; thus participants can safely go offline for an extended period of time.

AuthorsGeorgia Avarikioti*, Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos†, and Roger Wattenhofer*,

Affiliations: * ETH Zürich and † University of Edinburgh.

2. Paper Title: SoK: Communication Across Distributed Ledgers.

Summary: The first systematic exposition of protocols for cross-chain communication.

AuthorsAlexei Zamyatin*†, Mustafa Al-Bassam‡, Dionysis Zindros§$, Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias✜, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez¶, Aggelos Kiayias$%, and William J. Knottenbelt*,

Affiliations: * Imperial College London, † SBA Research, ‡ University College London, § University of Athens, ✜ EPFL, ¶ TU Wien, $ IOHK, and % University of Edinburgh.

3. Paper Title: Prism: Scaling Bitcoin by 10,000×.

Summary: A throughput of over 70,000 transactions per second and confirmation latency of tens of seconds on networks of up to 1000 EC2 Virtual Machines.

AuthorsLei Yang*, Vivek Bagaria†, Gerui Wang‡, Mohammad Alizadeh*, David Tse†, Giulia Fanti§, and Pramod Viswanath‡,

Affiliations: * MIT CSAIL, † Stanford University, ‡ UIUC, and § CMU.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: KRNC: New Foundations for Permissionless Byzantine Consensus and Global Monetary Stability.

Summary: This paper applies biomimetic engineering to the problem of permissionless Byzantine consensus and achieves results that surpass the prior state of the art by four orders of magnitude.

Authors: Clinton Ehrlich* and Anna Guzova†,

Affiliations* MGIMO University and † AO UniCredit Bank.

2. Paper Title: Redactable Proof-of-Stake Blockchain with Fast Confirmation.

Summary: A novel mechanism based on verifiable random functions to randomly select voters on different slots in a private and non-interactive way, and also offers public verifiability for redactable chains.

AuthorsJing Xu*, Xinyu Li*, Lingyuan Yin*, Bingyong Guo*, Han Feng*, and Zhenfeng Zhang*,

Affiliations: * Institute of Software - Chinese.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Smart Contracts: Reducing Risks in Economic Exchange with No-Party Trust?

Summary: This work argues the kind of trust that underpins smart contracts and the circumstances that would facilitate novel forms of economic exchange.

AuthorsHelen Eenmaa-Dimitrieva* and Maria José Schmidt-Kessen†,

Affiliations: * University of Tartu School of Law and † CBS Law.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #27

Issue #27


Issue #27

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Barracuda: The Power of l-polling in Proof-of-Stake Blockchains.

TLDR:

  1. Forking occurs in almost all major blockchains, and it implies that blockchains are often not chains at all, but blocktrees. For many consensus protocols (particularly chain-based ones like Bitcoin’s), forking reduces throughput, because blocks that are not on the main chain are discarded.

  2. It also has security implications; even protocols that achieve good block throughput in the high-forking regime have thus far been prone to security vulnerabilities.

  3. There are two common approaches to mitigate forking: (i) improve the network itself, e.g. by upgrading hardware and routing and (ii) design consensus algorithms that tolerate network latency by making use of forked branches.

  4. This work design a P2P protocol that effectively reduces forking for a wide class of existing consensus algorithms through an l-polling as a technique.

  5. First, a new probabilistic model for the evolution of a blockchain in proof-of-stake cryptocurrencies is proposed, where the main source of randomness comes from the network delay.

  6. Next, a new block proposal algorithm called l-Barracuda, under which nodes poll l randomly-selected nodes for their local blocktree information before proposing a new block. It is shown that for small values of l, Barracuda has approximately the same effect as if the entire network were a factor of l faster.

  7. Finally, this paper provide guidelines on how to implement Barracuda in practice in order to provide robustness against several real-world factors, such as network model mismatch and adver- sarial behavior.

AuthorsGiulia Fanti*, Jiantao Jiao†, Ashok Makkuva‡, Sewoong Oh‡, Ranvir Rana‡, and Pramod Viswanath‡,

Affiliations: * Carnegie Mellon University, † University of California, Berkeley, and ‡ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


Security:

1. Paper Title: ABC: Asynchronous Blockchain without Consensus.

Summary: An asynchronous blockchain design that features an array of advantages by not relying on establishing consensus in the first place.

AuthorsJakub Sliwinski* and Roger Wattenhofer*,

Affiliations: * ETH Zurich.


Privacy:

No papers.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: Techniques and Applications for Crawling, Ingesting and Analyzing Blockchain Data.

Summary: A system that is capable of crawling the blockchain in order to extract data and to cross correlate the Smart Contract interfaces with the code in order to reconstruct the metadata correctly.

Authors: Evan Brinckman*, Andrey Kuehlkamp*, Jarek Nabrzyski*, and Ian J. Taylor*†,

Affiliations: * University of Notre Dame and † Cardiff University.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: OCEAN: A Built-In Replacement for Mining Pools.

Summary: This work suggests that miners, instead of presenting near hashes to a mining pool will present them to the blockchain itself while incorporating SNARK proofs to avoid flooding the blockchain.

Authors: Raymond Chee*, Kartik Chitturi*, Edouard Dufour-Sans*, and Kyle Soska*,

Affiliations* Carnegie Mellon University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: FinTech, BigTech, and the Future of Banks.

Summary: To understand how FinTech and BigTech can threaten banks, it is important to understand whether there is something unique about banks that makes it hard for them to be challenged by non-banks.

AuthorsRené M. Stulz*,

Affiliations: * Ohio State University.

2. Paper Title: The Tokenization of Assets: Using Blockchains for Equity Crowdfunding.

Summary: The tokenization of crowdfunded equity shares as a possible approach to improve access to capital for startups.

AuthorsJakob Roth, Fabian Schär*, and Aljoscha Schöpfer,

Affiliations: * University of Basel.

3. Paper Title: An Industry Study of Blockchain Technology’s Impact on Trade Finance.

Summary: A study that marks a first step in the exploration of the important and dynamic field of blockchain-based innovation for supply chain and trade finance, and paves the way for future research into stakeholders’ expectations, as well as the resulting behaviors and investment patterns that can be expected.

AuthorsDaniel P. Hellwig* and Arnd Huchzermeier*,

Affiliations: * WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #26

Issue #26


Issue #26

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Broken Metre: Attacking Resource Metering in EVM.

TLDR:

  1. The logic for matching costs and instructions in the Ethereum network not only appears somewhat disconnected to actual costs, but embeds fundamental limitations which have shown cracks with what is known as EIP-150, an update to the Ethereum gas fees in response to several DoS attacks.

  2. This paper is the first attempt to explore the design of the EVM metering system in depth in order to understand both how valid this approach is and how it may be possible to take advantage of EVM design flaws.

  3. Initially, this work identifies several important edge cases that highlight inherent flaws in EVM metering; specifically, i) EVM instructions for which the gas fee is too low compared to their resources consumption; and ii) cases of programs where the cache influences exe- cution time by an order of magnitude.

  4. Next, the Ethereum main net is analyzed by exploring the history of executing 2.5 months worth of smart contracts and demonstrating that the gas usage is only marginally correlated with the usage of resources such as CPU and memory, and that the gas cost is dominated by the EVM storage.

  5. Following that, a code generation strategy able to produce Resource Exhaustion Attacks (REA) attacks of arbitrary length is presented, followed with an approach which combines empirical data and genetic programming in order to generate contracts with low throughput.

  6. Finally, by presenting some experiments, this work shows that the REA can abuse the imperfections in EVM’s metering approach and presents some interesting throughput and cost results.

AuthorsDaniel Perez* and Benjamin Livshits*,

Affiliations: * Imperial College London.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Truthful and Faithful Monetary Policy for a Stablecoin Conducted by a Decentralised, Encrypted Artificial Intelligence.

Summary: This paper solves the decentralization of the monetary policy, achieving a fully decentralized cryptocurrency when combined with a public permissionless blockchain.

AuthorsDavid Cerezo Sánchez*,

Affiliations: * Calctopia.

2. Paper Title: Oracle-Supported Dynamic Exploit Generation for Smart Contracts.

Summary: A grey-box fuzzing approach for finding exploitable vulnerabilities in smart contracts.

AuthorsHaijun Wang*, Yi Li*, Shang-wei Lin*, Cyrille Artho†, Lei Ma‡, and Yang Liu*,

Affiliations: *Nanyang Technological University, † KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and ‡ Kyushu University.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Privacy-preserving auditable token payments in a permissioned blockchain system.

Summary: This paper introduces a token management system for permissioned networks that can provide private transactions, transaction authorization via certificates, and user auditability.

AuthorsElli Androulaki*, Jan Camenisch†, Angelo De Caro*, Maria Dubovitskaya†, Kaoutar Elkhiyaoui*, and Bjoern Tackmann†,

Affiliations: * IBM Research - Zurich and † DFINITY.

2. Paper Title: User-Controlled Privacy-Preserving User Profile Data Sharing based on Blockchain.

Summary: A decentralized data sharing architecture with MultiChain blockchain in the travel domain, which is also applicable to other similar domains including education, health, and sports.

AuthorsAjay Kumar Shrestha*, Ralph Deters*, and Julita Vassileva*,

Affiliations: * University of Saskatchewan.

3. Paper Title: Private and Atomic Exchange of Assets over Zero Knowledge Based Payment Ledger.

Summary: A unified framework to support both privacy enhanced payment transactions and a fair exchange of crypto assets without using centralized mixing services, escrow based or off-chain/site-chain approaches

AuthorsZhimin Gao*, Lei Xu†, Keshav Kasichainula‡, Lin Chen§, and Bogdan Carbunar✜, Weidong Shi‡,

Affiliations: * Auburn University, † University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, ‡ University of Houston, § Texas Tech, and ✜ Florida International University.


Scalability:

1. Paper Title: KRNC: New Foundations for Permissionless Byzantine Consensus and Global Monetary Stability.

Summary: This paper applies biomimetic engineering to the problem of permissionless Byzantine consensus and achieves results that surpass the prior state of the art by four orders of magnitude.

AuthorsClinton Ehrlich* and Anna Guzova†,

Affiliations: * MGIMO University and † AO UniCredit Bank.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: An Analysis of Blockchain Consistency in Asynchronous Networks: Deriving a Neat Bound.

Summary: A result for the consistency property of Nakamoto’s blockchain protocol that is stronger than all existing results in the literature.

Authors: Jun Zhao*,

Affiliations* Nanyang Technological University.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Beyond Bitcoin: Leveraging Blockchain to Benefit Business and Society.

Summary: Blockchain will revolutionize banking, healthcare, politics, real estate, supply chain management, cybersecurity, infrastructure security, corporate governance, and the legal market.

AuthorsMarcia Narine Weldon* and Rachel Epstein,

Affiliations: * University of Miami School of Law.

2. Paper Title: Market Reaction to Exchange Listings of Cryptocurrencies.

Summary: Evidence on the phenomenon of cryptocurrency cross- listings, especially on asset returns, their determinants and signs of informed trading.

AuthorsLennart Ante*,

Affiliations: * University of Hamburg.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #25

Issue #25


Issue #25

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Privacy-Utility Tradeoffs in Routing Cryptocurrency over Payment Channel Networks.

TLDR:

  1. The questions about whether cryptocurrencies are fundamentally able to support as high traffic as traditional centralized solutions, still exist.

  2. Several cryptocurrencies have turned to a class of scalability solutions called payment channel networks (PCNs). Examples include Bitcoin’s Lightning network and Ethereum’s Raiden network.

  3. A principal challenge is a privacy-preserving routing problem: each time users wish to route a transaction, they must find a path through the PCN with enough pre-allocated funds to route the transaction.

  4. The goal of this paper is to study privacy utility tradeoffs that arise in such a PCN transaction routing.

  5. The routing problem is theoretically modeled in PCNs and distribution-free metrics for privacy and utility are defined.

  6. A network can reveal noisy channel balances to trade off privacy for utility, fundamental limits on such a tradeoff, and proposes noise mechanisms that achieves the fundamental limit for a general class of graph topologies.

  7. Simulations show that even if one were to consider an average-case utility metric (fraction of successful transactions, or success rate) rather than a worst-case one, the privacy-success rate tradeoff is still not favorable for shortest- path routing.

AuthorsWeizhao Tang*, Weina Wang*, Giulia Fanti*, and Sewoong Oh†,

Affiliations:* Carnegie Mellon University and † University of Washington.


Security:

1. Paper Title: A Tale of Two Trees: One Writes, and Other Reads.

Summary: A system design that supports a large-scale oblivious search on unspent transaction outputs for Bitcoin SPV clients while efficiently maintains the state of the Bitcoin UTXO set via an oblivious update protocol, leveraging the TEE capabilities of Intel SGX.

Authors: Duc V. Le*, Lizzy Tengana Hurtado†, Adil Ahmad*, Mohsen Minaei*, Byoungyoung Lee‡, and Aniket Kate*,

Affiliations: * Purdue University, † National University of Colombia, and ‡ Seoul National University.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: DECO: Liberating Web Data Using Decentralized Oracles for TLS.

Summary: A decentralized oracle scheme for modern TLS versions that requires no trusted hardware or server-side modifications where a prover can generate unforgeable commitments to TLS sessions and efficiently prove statements about session content.

AuthorsFan Zhang*, Sai Krishna Deepak Maram*, Harjasleen Malvai†, Steven Goldfeder*, and Ari Juels*,

Affiliations: Cornell Tech and † Cornell University.

2. Paper Title: Onionchain: Towards Balancing Privacy and Traceability of Blockchain-Based Applications.

Summary: An integration mechanism of Onion routing into the proposed protocol, enabling parties to perform transactions in an anonymous way.

Authors: Yue Zhang*, Jian Weng*, Jiasi Weng*, Ming Li*, and Weiqi Luo*,

Affiliations: Jinan University.


Scalability:

No Papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: Halo: Recursive Proof Composition without a Trusted Setup.

Summary: The first realization of recursive proof composition without a trusted setup.

AuthorsSean Bowe*, Jack Grigg*, and Daira Hopwood*,

Affiliations: * Electric Coin Company.

2. Paper Title: Mapping finite state machines to zk-SNARKS Using Category Theory.

Summary: Formal models of computation and cryptography, providing a categorical way to turn finite state machines into zk-SNARKs that verify how a sequence of inputs leading to a state change follows the rules specified by the finite state machine itself.

AuthorsF. Genovese*, A. Knispel*, and J. Fitzgerald*,

Affiliations: * Statebox Team.


Consensus Protocols:

1. Paper Title: Bootstrapping Consensus Without Trusted Setup: Fully Asynchronous Distributed Key Generation.

Summary: The first fully asynchronous distributed key generation (ADKG) algorithm as well as the first distributed key generation algorithm that can create keys with a dual (f, 2f + 1)−threshold that are necessary for scalable consensus

Authors: Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias*, Alexander Spiegelman†, Dahlia Malkhi‡, and Ittai Abraham†,

Affiliations* EPFL, † VMware Research, and ‡ Calibra.

2. Paper Title: Puncturable Signatures and Applications in Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol.

Summary: A puncturable signature that allows for fine-grained revocation of signing capability with minimum computation cost, and make it a suitable building block to construct secure and practical proof-of-stake blockchain protocol.

AuthorsXin-Yu Li*, Jing Xu*, Xiong Fan†, Yu-Chen Wang*, and Zhen-Feng Zhang*,

Affiliations: * Chinese Academy of Sciences and † University of Maryland.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: A Brief Introduction to Blockchain Economics.

Summary: This work clarifies from an economic perspective what blockchains are (or envisioned to be) and why they are (or would be) useful, and then introduces a generalized concept of desirable features together with a conjecture of their irreducible tension. Next, it highlight key economic issues surrounding blockchains before pointing out future research directions and challenges to tackle in practice.

AuthorsLong Chen*, Lin William Cong†, and Yizhou Xiao‡,

Affiliations: * Luohan Academy, Cornell University, and ‡ The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

2. Paper Title: Decentralising the Patent System.

Summary: A substantive re-think of the modern patent system.

AuthorsGaétan de Rassenfosse* and Kyle Higham*,

Affiliations: * EPFL.


Conferences:


Jobs:


“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

Thanks for reading! If we missed anything, shoot us an email so that we can feature it in our next newsletter!


This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.

Loading more posts…