This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #106

Issue #106


Issue #106

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: SnarkPack: Practical SNARK Aggregation.


  1. This work presents and implements an argument for aggregating n Groth16 zkSNARKs with a O(log n) proof size and verifier time.

  2. The techniques are inspired from the inner pairing product argument introduced by Bünz et al. with the difference that the final scheme does not require a different trusted setup, but it reuses the one from the pairing-based SNARK that it aggregates.

  3. The key tool for the proposed construction is a new commitment scheme that allows to instantiate the inner product pairing argument of Bünz et al. by using existing powers of tau ceremony transcripts.

  4. The work also describes a scheme that merges together a multi-exponentiation argument and an inner pairing product argument for some common randomness vector with minimal overhead.

  5. Then it applies some optimisations to the protocol and illustrates it’s efficiency by implementing it.

  6. SnarkPack can aggregate 1024 proofs in 2s and verify them in 33ms, including un-serialization time, yielding a verification mechanism that is exponentially faster than batching.

AuthorsNicolas Gailly*, Mary Maller†, and Anca Nitulescu*

Affiliations: * Protocol Labs and † Ethereum Fondation.


1. Paper Title: Vulnerabilities and Open Issues of Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping.

Summary: This paper conducts a systematic literature mapping identifying initiatives and tools to analyze SCs and how to deal with the identified vulnerabilities.

Authors: Gabriel de Sousa Matsumura*, Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos*, Arlindo Flavio da Conceicao†, and Nandamudi Lankalapalli Vijaykumar†,

Affiliations* Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sao Paulo and † Federal University of Sao Paulo.

2. Paper Title: SoK: Exploring Blockchains Interoperability.

Summary: This paper presents a Systematization of Knowledge for the existing efforts on blockchains interoperability.

Authors: Gang Wang*,

Affiliations* University of Connecticut.


1. Paper Title: MatRiCT+: More Efficient Post-Quantum Private Blockchain Payments.

Summary: A practical RingCT protocol based on post-quantum lattice assumptions.

Authors: Muhammed F. Esgin*†, Ron Steinfeld*, and Raymond K. Zhao*,

Affiliations* Monash University and † CSIRO’s Data61.


No papers.


1. Paper Title: On Simulation-Extractability of Universal zkSNARKs.

Summary: A class of computationally special-sound interactive proofs of knowledge that are zero- knowledge in the standard model and have a unique response property are simulation-extractable out-of- the box in the Random Oracle model when the Fiat–Shamir transformation is applied to them.

Authors: Markulf Kohlweiss*† and Michał Zając

Affiliations* University of Edinburgh, † IOHK, and ‡ Clearmatics.

2. Paper Title: Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge from Sub-exponential DDH.

Summary: The first constructions of non-interactive zero-knowledge and Zap arguments for NP based on the sub-exponential hardness of Decisional Diffie-Hellman against polynomial time adversaries (without use of groups with pairings).

Authors: Abhishek Jain* and Zhengzhong Jin*,

Affiliations* Johns Hopkins University.


No papers.


1. Paper Title: Decentralized Finance: Regulating Cryptocurrency Exchanges.

Summary: This Article proposes that regulators introduce formal registration obligations for cryptocurrency intermediaries —the exchange platforms that provide a marketplace for secondary market trading.

AuthorsKristin N. Johnson*,

Affiliations: * Emory University.

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