This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #110
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Paper of the Week:
To eliminate the unnecessary waste of energy and computing power in Bitcoin, this paper develops a novel proof-of-stake consensus in the permissionless setting.
Among other features, the design achieves the “best possible” unpredictability for permissionless proof-of-stake protocols.
Predictability can be abused by the attackers for launching strengthened version of multiple attacks such as selfish-mining and bribing, against proof-of-stake systems.
This work inspired by Bitcoin’s “block-by-block” design and shows that a direct and natural mimic of Bitcoin’s design via proof-of-stake is secure if the majority 73% of stake is honest.
The result relies on an interesting upper bound of extending proof-of-stake blockchain established: players (who may extend all chains) can generate blockchain at most 2.72× faster than playing the basic strategy of extending the longest chain.
A novel strategy called “D-distance-greedy” strategy is introduced, which enables to construct a class of secure proof-of-stake blockchain protocols, against an arbitrary adversary, even assuming much smaller (than 73% of) stake is honest.
To enable a thorough security analysis in the cryptographic setting, this work develops several new techniques: for example, to show the chain growth property, it represents the chain extension process via a Markov chain, and then develops a random walk on the Markov chain; to prove the common prefix property, it introduces a new concept called “virtual chains”, and then presents a reduction from the regular version of common prefix to “common prefix w.r.t. virtual chains”.
Summary: This multiple-key attack might be of interest in the Ethereum context, since recovering many keys simultaneously maximizes an attacker’s profit.
Affiliations: * Ruhr University Bochum.
Summary: A statically-typed functional programming language, built with intuitive semantics that enable users to write decentralized applications the attest to the correctness of their offline compilation and execution.
Affiliations: * Aleo.
3. Paper Title: A Trustless GQ Multi-Signature Scheme with Identifiable Abort.
Summary: A trapdoor less GQ multi-signature scheme with identifiable abort property and only 4 rounds of interaction in the signing phase, secure in the dishonest majority model.
Affiliations: * The University of Hong Kong.
4. Paper Title: VerLoc: Verifiable Localization in Decentralized Systems.
Summary: This paper tackles an open challenge: reliably determining the geo-location of nodes in decentralized networks, considering adversarial settings and without depending on any trusted parties.
5. Paper Title: SCSGuard: Deep Scam Detection for Ethereum Smart Contracts.
Summary: A novel deep learning scam detection framework that harnesses the automatically extractable bytecodes of smart contracts as their new features.
Authors: Huiwen Hu* and Yuedong Xu*,
Affiliations: * Fudan University.
1. Paper Title: Multi-Threshold Byzantine Fault Tolerance.
Summary: A generalized version of the BFT problem, which defines fault thresholds separately for safety and liveness under synchrony and asynchrony (or partial-synchrony), respectively.
2. Paper Title: Pravuil: Global Consensus for a United World.
Summary: A robust, secure, and scalable consensus protocol for a permissionless blockchain suitable for deployment in an adversarial environment such as the Internet.
Authors: David Cerezo Sánchez*,
Affiliations: * Catalopia.
1. Paper Title: While Stability Lasts: A Stochastic Model of Stablecoins.
Summary: A new stochastic model of over-collateralized stablecoins with an endogenous price.
Affiliations: * Cornell University.
Summary: This paper examines how central banks might use distributed ledger technology (DLT) to improve access to safe and affordable financial products and services.
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