This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #30

Issue #30

Issue #30

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Lever: Breaking the Shackles of Scalable On-chain Validation.


  1. Although advanced on-chain frameworks based on Byzantine Agreement plus Sharding achieve sub-linear scalability, they have to assume negligible workload of valida- tion in consensus, get vulnerable and inefficient when dealing with complicated operations.

  2. Advanced research trend concentrates on off-chain solutions to circumvent the problem by moving data and validation elsewhere off the blockchain, albeit a series of compromises are introduced.

  3. First, this work proposes the hardness model and dual channel model, which combine to drastically decouple the intensive val- idation from classical Byzantine consensus, additionally provides deterministic guarantees for incentive and time-sensitive events.

  4. Next, a validation challenge is proposed that achieves incentive-compatibility, cost-efficiency and perfect applicability.

  5. To ensure the validity and finality of the game, a backstop protocol is then proposed following the duplicated validation pattern, which provably solves the Verifier’s Dilemma.

  6. The framework is deployed under the architecture of sharding, streamlining the design by presenting efficient algorithms of atomic execution, hierarchical election, incentive management and workload coordination.

  7. Finally, convincing proofs and a proof-of-concept implementation are provided to evaluate this instantiation.

  8. As a result, this work achieves validity, incentive compatibility and cost-efficiency tolerance of < n/4 Byzantine participants.

AuthorsMingming Wang* and Qianhong Wu*,

Affiliations: * Beihang University.


1. Paper Title: Aggregatable Signatures from an Inner Pairing Product Argument.

Summary: This paper introduces an aggregatable signature scheme which was inspired by Boneh, Gentry, Lynn and Shacham where the verifier needs to evaluate just six pairings.

AuthorsMary Maller* and Noah Vesely*,

Affiliations: * University College London.

2. Paper Title: Security Analysis and Improvements for the IETF MLS Standard for Group Messaging.

Summary: This paper makes progress in the formal study of secure group-messaging protocols (SGMs) by studying the security of the latest version of the TreeKEM protocol, the heart of the MLS standard.

AuthorsJoël Alwen‡, Sandro Coretti†, Yevgeniy Dodis*, and Yiannis Tselekounis*,

Affiliations: * New York University, † IOHK, and ‡ Wickr Inc.

3. Paper Title: SADAN: Scalable Adversary Detection in Autonomous Networks.

Summary: A scheme to efficiently identify malicious devices within large networks of collaborating entities.

Authors: Tigist Abera*, Ferdinand Brasser*, Lachlan J. Gunn†, David Koisser*, and Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi*.

Affiliations: * Technische Universität Darmstadt and † Aalto University.


1. Paper Title: Cascading Machine Learning to Attack Bitcoin Anonymity.

Summary: A novel approach to decrease Bitcoin anonymity based on a cascading machine learning model, using entity, address and motifs data as inputs.

AuthorsFrancesco Zola*, Maria Eguimendia*, Jan Lukas Bruse*, Raul Orduna Urrutia*,

Affiliations: * Dept. Data Intelligence for Energy and Industrial Processes, Vicomtech.


1. Paper Title: SoK: Sharding on Blockchain.

Summary: This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive review on blockchain sharding techniques.

AuthorsGang Wang*, Zhijie Jerry Shi*, Mark Nixon†, and Song Han*,

Affiliations: * University of Connecticut and † Emerson Automation Solutions.


No papers.

Consensus Protocols:

No papers.


1. Paper Title: 2nd Global Enterprise Blockchain Benchmarking Study.

Summary: This study seeks to shed lightmon the diverging interpretations of the terms blockchain and DLTs, and the potential confusion being created. The report delves into the granular detail of how the enterprise blockchain ecosystem has evolved, by using data collected from more than 160 entities and 67 live networks.

AuthorsMichel Rauchs*, Apolline Blandin*, Keith Bear*, and Stephen B. McKeon†,

Affiliations: * University of Cambridge and † University of Oregon.

2. Paper Title: Economics of Technology, Securities and Capital Markets.

Summary: This work outlines the key economic issues that have emerged in the area of FinTech innovation for securities and capital markets, reviews the literature that has studied these issues, and discusses open questions.

AuthorsKatya Malinova*,

Affiliations: * McMaster University.



“Significant research in the blockchain space is constantly being achieved by academic researchers. Unfortunately, a lot of this research is overlooked due to the massive numbers of papers being generated and the way they are being promoted and published. We’ve put together a categorized list of academic papers that can guide our subscribers and keep them up to date.”

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