This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #90

Issue #90

Issue #90

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Proof-Carrying Data without Succinct Arguments.


  1. Proof-carrying data (PCD) is a powerful cryptographic primitive that enables mutually distrustful parties to perform distributed computations that run indefinitely.

  2. Known approaches to construct PCD are based on succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) that have a succinct verifier or a succinct accumulation scheme for their proofs.

  3. This paper shows how to obtain PCD without relying on SNARKs. It constructs a PCD scheme given any non-interactive argument of knowledge (e.g., with linear-size proofs) that has a split accumulation scheme, which is a weak form of accumulation that is introduced.

  4. The work additionally constructs a transparent non-interactive argument of knowledge for R1CS whose accumulation is verifiable via a constant number of group and field operations.

  5. This leads, via the random oracle heuristic and the result above, to efficiency improvements for PCD. Along the way, this work constructs a split accumulation scheme for a simple polynomial commitment scheme based on Pedersen commitments.

  6. The results are supported by a modular and efficient implementation.

AuthorsBenedikt Bünz*, Alessandro Chiesa†, William Lin†, Pratyush Mishra†, and Nicholas Spooner‡,

Affiliations: * Stanford University, † UC Berkeley, and ‡ Boston University.


1. Paper Title: Aggregatable Distributed Key Generation.

Summary: A distributed key generation (DKG) protocol with aggregatable and publicly-verifiable transcripts that reduces the size of the final transcript and the time to verify it from O(n^2) to O(nlogn), where n denotes the number of parties.

Authors: Kobi Gurkan*†, Philipp Jovanovic‡, Mary Maller†, Sarah Meiklejohn‡, Gilad Stern§, Alin Tomescu✜,

Affiliations* cLabs, † Ethereum Foundation, ‡ University College London, § Hebrew University, and ✜ VMware Research.

2. Paper Title: A Survey on Vulnerabilities of Ethereum Smart Contracts.

Summary: This paper discusses Smart Contract (SC) vulnerabilities and classifies them according to the domain knowledge of the faulty operations.

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali Khan* and Akbar Siami Namin*,

Affiliations* Texas Tech University.

3. Paper Title: Armiarma: Ethereum2 Network Monitoring Tool.

Summary: An Eth2 network monitor tool used to generate a complete analysis of the p2p network of the Eth2 main net. 

Authors: Mikel Cortes-Goicoechea* and Leonardo Bautista-Gomez*,

Affiliations* Barcelona Supercomputing Center.

4. Paper Title: A Decentralized Dynamic PKI based on Blockchain.

Summary: A general model and a solution for decentralized and dynamic PKI based on a blockchain and web of trust model where the traditional CA and digital certificates are removed and instead, everything is registered on the blockchain.

Authors: Mohsen Toorani* and Christian Gehrmann*,

Affiliations* Lund University.

5. Paper Title: Crypto-Hotwire: Illegal Blockchain Mining at Zero Cost Using Public Infrastructures.

Summary: The possibility of converting energy into cash also opens up opportunities for a new kind of cyber attack aimed at illegally mining cryptocurrencies by stealing energy.

Authors: Felipe Ribas Coutinho*, Victor Pires*, Claudio Miceli*, and Daniel S. Menasche*,

Affiliations* UFRJ.


1. Paper Title: Blockchain Privacy Through Merge Avoidance and Mixing Services: a Hardness and an Impossibility Result.

Summary: Whereas optimal merge avoidance leads to an NP-hard optimization problem, incentive-compatible mixing services are subject to a certain class of impossibility results.

Authors: Jefferson E. Simoes*, Eduardo Ferreira*, Daniel S. Menasche*, and Carlos A. V. Campos†,

Affiliations* UFRJ and † UNIRIO,


No papers.


No papers.


1. Paper Title: e-PoS: Making Proof-of-Stake Decentralized and Fair.

Summary: A modular version of PoS-based blockchain systems that resists the centralization of network resources by extending mining opportunities to a wider set of stakeholders.

Authors: Muhammad Saad*, Zhan Qin†, Kui Ren†, DaeHun Nyang‡, and David Mohaisen*,

Affiliations* University of Central Florida, † Zhejiang University, and ‡ Ewha Womans University.

2. Paper Title: SG-PBFT: a Secure and Highly Efficient Blockchain PBFT Consensus Algorithm for Internet of Vehicles.

Summary: A secure and highly efficient PBFT consensus algorithm for Internet of Vehicles, which is based on a distributed blockchain structure. 

Authors: Guangquan Xu*†, Yihua Liu†, Jun Xing*, Tao Luo†, Yonghao Gu‡, Shaoying Liu§, Xi Zheng✜, and Athanasios V. Vasilakos+,

Affiliations* Qingdao Huanghai University, † Tianjin University, ‡ Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, § Hiroshima University, ✜ Macquarie University, and + University of Technology Sydney.


1. Paper Title: Stablecoin Billionaires - A Descriptive Analysis of the Ethereum-based Stablecoin Ecosystem.

Summary: There are extreme concentrations of power within the token contracts of centralized Stablecoins, while decentralized tokens such as DAI lacked structural power imbalances.

AuthorsAnton Wahrstätter*,

Affiliations: * University of Innsbruck.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain and Other Distributed Ledger Technologies, An Advanced Primer.

Summary: This work reviews the current state of this technology and to discuss some of its advantages and drawbacks in settings beyond crypto-currencies.

AuthorsGilles Hilary*,

Affiliations: * Georgetown University.

Conferences’ Videos:



This newsletter is for informational purposes only. This content does not in any way constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any investment solution or recommendation to buy or sell a security; nor it is to be taken as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. In fact, none of the information in this or other content on zk Capital should be relied on in any manner as advice. None of the authors, contributors, or anyone else connected with zk Capital, in any way whatsoever, can be responsible for your use of the information contained in this newsletter.