This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #90

Issue #90


Issue #90

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Proof-Carrying Data without Succinct Arguments.

TLDR:

  1. Proof-carrying data (PCD) is a powerful cryptographic primitive that enables mutually distrustful parties to perform distributed computations that run indefinitely.

  2. Known approaches to construct PCD are based on succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) that have a succinct verifier or a succinct accumulation scheme for their proofs.

  3. This paper shows how to obtain PCD without relying on SNARKs. It constructs a PCD scheme given any non-interactive argument of knowledge (e.g., with linear-size proofs) that has a split accumulation scheme, which is a weak form of accumulation that is introduced.

  4. The work additionally constructs a transparent non-interactive argument of knowledge for R1CS whose accumulation is verifiable via a constant number of group and field operations.

  5. This leads, via the random oracle heuristic and the result above, to efficiency improvements for PCD. Along the way, this work constructs a split accumulation scheme for a simple polynomial commitment scheme based on Pedersen commitments.

  6. The results are supported by a modular and efficient implementation.

AuthorsBenedikt Bünz*, Alessandro Chiesa†, William Lin†, Pratyush Mishra†, and Nicholas Spooner‡,

Affiliations: * Stanford University, † UC Berkeley, and ‡ Boston University.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Aggregatable Distributed Key Generation.

Summary: A distributed key generation (DKG) protocol with aggregatable and publicly-verifiable transcripts that reduces the size of the final transcript and the time to verify it from O(n^2) to O(nlogn), where n denotes the number of parties.

Authors: Kobi Gurkan*†, Philipp Jovanovic‡, Mary Maller†, Sarah Meiklejohn‡, Gilad Stern§, Alin Tomescu✜,

Affiliations* cLabs, † Ethereum Foundation, ‡ University College London, § Hebrew University, and ✜ VMware Research.

2. Paper Title: A Survey on Vulnerabilities of Ethereum Smart Contracts.

Summary: This paper discusses Smart Contract (SC) vulnerabilities and classifies them according to the domain knowledge of the faulty operations.

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali Khan* and Akbar Siami Namin*,

Affiliations* Texas Tech University.

3. Paper Title: Armiarma: Ethereum2 Network Monitoring Tool.

Summary: An Eth2 network monitor tool used to generate a complete analysis of the p2p network of the Eth2 main net. 

Authors: Mikel Cortes-Goicoechea* and Leonardo Bautista-Gomez*,

Affiliations* Barcelona Supercomputing Center.

4. Paper Title: A Decentralized Dynamic PKI based on Blockchain.

Summary: A general model and a solution for decentralized and dynamic PKI based on a blockchain and web of trust model where the traditional CA and digital certificates are removed and instead, everything is registered on the blockchain.

Authors: Mohsen Toorani* and Christian Gehrmann*,

Affiliations* Lund University.

5. Paper Title: Crypto-Hotwire: Illegal Blockchain Mining at Zero Cost Using Public Infrastructures.

Summary: The possibility of converting energy into cash also opens up opportunities for a new kind of cyber attack aimed at illegally mining cryptocurrencies by stealing energy.

Authors: Felipe Ribas Coutinho*, Victor Pires*, Claudio Miceli*, and Daniel S. Menasche*,

Affiliations* UFRJ.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Blockchain Privacy Through Merge Avoidance and Mixing Services: a Hardness and an Impossibility Result.

Summary: Whereas optimal merge avoidance leads to an NP-hard optimization problem, incentive-compatible mixing services are subject to a certain class of impossibility results.

Authors: Jefferson E. Simoes*, Eduardo Ferreira*, Daniel S. Menasche*, and Carlos A. V. Campos†,

Affiliations* UFRJ and † UNIRIO,


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

No papers.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: e-PoS: Making Proof-of-Stake Decentralized and Fair.

Summary: A modular version of PoS-based blockchain systems that resists the centralization of network resources by extending mining opportunities to a wider set of stakeholders.

Authors: Muhammad Saad*, Zhan Qin†, Kui Ren†, DaeHun Nyang‡, and David Mohaisen*,

Affiliations* University of Central Florida, † Zhejiang University, and ‡ Ewha Womans University.

2. Paper Title: SG-PBFT: a Secure and Highly Efficient Blockchain PBFT Consensus Algorithm for Internet of Vehicles.

Summary: A secure and highly efficient PBFT consensus algorithm for Internet of Vehicles, which is based on a distributed blockchain structure. 

Authors: Guangquan Xu*†, Yihua Liu†, Jun Xing*, Tao Luo†, Yonghao Gu‡, Shaoying Liu§, Xi Zheng✜, and Athanasios V. Vasilakos+,

Affiliations* Qingdao Huanghai University, † Tianjin University, ‡ Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, § Hiroshima University, ✜ Macquarie University, and + University of Technology Sydney.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: Stablecoin Billionaires - A Descriptive Analysis of the Ethereum-based Stablecoin Ecosystem.

Summary: There are extreme concentrations of power within the token contracts of centralized Stablecoins, while decentralized tokens such as DAI lacked structural power imbalances.

AuthorsAnton Wahrstätter*,

Affiliations: * University of Innsbruck.

2. Paper Title: Blockchain and Other Distributed Ledger Technologies, An Advanced Primer.

Summary: This work reviews the current state of this technology and to discuss some of its advantages and drawbacks in settings beyond crypto-currencies.

AuthorsGilles Hilary*,

Affiliations: * Georgetown University.


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