# This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #84

### Issue #84

**Issue #84**

**Paper of the Week:**

* Paper Title: *More Efficient Amortization of Exact Zero-Knowledge Proofs for LWE.

TLDR:

This work proposes a practical zero-knowledge proof system for proving knowledge of short solutions

s, eto linear relationsAs + e = u(mod q) which gives the most efficient solution for two naturally-occurring classes of problems.The first is when

Ais very “tall”, which corresponds to a large number of LWE instances that use the same secrets.In this case, this work shows that the proof size is independent of the height of the matrix (and thus the length of the error vector

e) and rather only linearly depends on the length ofs.The second case is when

Ais of the formA′ ⊗I, which corresponds to proving many LWE instances (with different secrets) that use the same samplesA′.The length of this second proof is square root in the length of

s, which corresponds to square root of the length of all the secrets.The constructions combine recent advances in “purely” lattice-based zero-knowledge proofs with the Reed-Solomon proximity testing ideas present in some generic zero-knowledge proof systems – with the main difference is that the latter are applied directly to the lattice instances without going through intermediate problems.

* Authors*: Jonathan Bootle*, Vadim Lyubashevsky*, Ngoc Khanh Nguyen*†, and Gregor Seiler*†,

* Affiliations: ** IBM Research – Zurich and † ETH Zurich.

**Security:**

* 1. Paper Title: *SoK: Cyber-Attack Taxonomy of Distributed Ledger- and Legacy Systems-based Financial Infrastructures.

The security of financial technologies in the FinTech domain.Summary:

* Authors*: Ralph Ankele*, Kai Nahrgang2, Branka Stojanovic†, and Atta Badii‡,

* Affiliations: ** Independent Researcher, † JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, and ‡ University of Reading.

**Privacy:**

*No papers.*

**Scalability:**

* 1. Paper Title: *PayMo: Payment Channels For Monero.

The first payment channel protocol that is fully compatible with Monero.Summary:

* Authors*: Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan*, Giulio Malavolta†, Fritz Schmidt*, Dominique Schröder*,

* Affiliations: ** Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg and † Max Planck Institute of Security and Privacy.

**Proofs:**

* 1. Paper Title: *Enhancing Code Based Zero-knowledge Proofs using Rank Metric.

Quantum resistant interactive zero-knowledge proofs, with the property of public-coin, i.e. verifier’s random coins are made public throughout the proof protocol.Summary:

* Authors*: Emanuele Bellini*, Philippe Gaborit‡, Alexandros Hasikos*†, and Victor Mateu*,

* Affiliations: ** Technology Innovation Institute, † Universitat Pompeu Fabra, and ‡ University of Limoges.

* 2. Paper Title: *Efficient Fully Secure Computation via Distributed Zero-Knowledge Proofs.

An efficient protocol for any constant number of parties n, with full security against t < n/2 corrupted parties, that makes a black-box use of a pseudorandom generator.Summary:

* Authors*: Elette Boyle*, Niv Gilboa†, Yuval Ishai‡, and Ariel Nof‡.

* Affiliations: ** IDC Herzliya, † Ben-Gurion University, ‡ Technion.

* 3. Paper Title: *Shorter Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs via One-Time Commitments.

A further reduction of around 30% in the proof output size.Summary:

* Authors*: Vadim Lyubashevsky*, Ngoc Khanh Nguyen*†, and Gregor Seiler*†,

* Affiliations: ** IBM Research – Zurich and † ETH Zurich.

* 4. Paper Title: *Line-Point Zero Knowledge and Its Applications.

A simple instance of (1- round), zero-knowledge linear interactive proof (LIP), in which the verifier sends a single field element to the prover.Summary:

* Authors: *Samuel Dittmer*, Yuval Ishai†, Rafail Ostrovsky‡

* Affiliations: ** Stealth Software Technologies Inc., † Technion, and ‡ UCLA.

**Consensus:**

* 1. Paper Title: *TaiJi: Longest Chain Availability with BFT Fast Confirmation.

A new construction which combines a longest chain protocol and a BFT protocol to get the best of both worlds.Summary:

* Authors*: Songze Li* and David Tse†,

* Affiliations: ** University of Southern California and † Stanford.

**Tokenomics:**

* 1. Paper Title: *A Comprehensive Review of the Global Development of Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) and Their Regulation.

This work proposes that scholars sort out and differentiate supply of vs. demand for ICO funding, taking geography and regulation into account with a global perspective.Summary:

* Authors: *Cristiano Bellavitis*, Christian Fisch†, and Johan Wiklund*,

* Affiliations: ** Syracuse University and † University of Trier.

* 2. Paper Title: *Cryptocurrency Mining: Asymmetric Response to Price Movement.

Miners using Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) equipment, with a lower salvage value, have asymmetric reactions to price shocks, while miners using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) equipment, with a higher salvage value, have more symmetric reactions to price shocks.Summary:

* Authors: *Peter Mueller*,

* Affiliations: ** University of Oklahoma.

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