This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #68
|zk Capital||Aug 5|
Paper of the Week:
Sharding is a common approach to scale distributed systems and is regarded as a promising technique for scaling permissionless blockchains, where any- one can join and leave the system at any time.
However, adapting sharding protocols in permissionless settings faces two challenges. First, the focus of traditional sharding protocols has been on systems concerning crash faults where nodes may stop responding, whereas permissionless blockchains concern Byzantine faults where nodes may behave arbitrarily. Second, as nodes in permissionless blockchains may join or leave at any time, sharding protocols need to dynamically re-balance the number of nodes in different shards.
Securely and dynamically allocating nodes into different shards is the core component of sharded blockchains to address the above challenges.
This paper provides the first study on shard allocation— an overlooked core component for shared permissionless blockchains.
It formalizes the shard allocation protocol along with its properties and performance metrics, and evaluates the shard allocation protocols in the existing leading proposals.
It also proposes a correct and efficient shard allocation protocol for permissionless blockchains.
1. Paper Title: STARK Friendly Hash – Survey and Recommendation.
Summary: A STARK friendly hash (SFH) function, to be used in combination with transparent and plausibly post-quantum secure proof systems within blockchains.
Authors: Eli Ben-Sasson*, Lior Goldberg*, and David Levit*,
Affiliations: * StarkWare Industries.
Summary: A platform for practical, user-friendly realization of decentralized identity, the idea of empowering end users with management of their own credentials.
Summary: This paper focuses on attacks at the underlying peer-to-peer layer of DLTs, that is in charge of disseminating messages containing data and transaction to be spread among all participants.
Authors: Luca Serena*, Gabriele D'Angelo†, Stefano Ferretti‡,
Summary: A new paradigm for blockchain sharding that achieves lower latency and higher throughput for cross-shard transactions.
Affiliations: * University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Summary: A proof of reserves protocol for MimbleWimble with proof sizes scaling logarithmically in the size of the anonymity set and linearly in the size of the exchange-owned output set.
Affiliations: * Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
2. Paper Title: Demystifying the Role of zk-SNARKs in Zcash.
Summary: This paper elaborates and constructs a concrete zk-SNARK proof from scratch and explain its role in the Zcash algorithm.
Affiliations: * Trinity College Dublin.
Summary: A new consensus mechanism which directs the computation spent for consensus toward optimization of neural networks (NN).
1. Paper Title: On the (Un)Feasibility of Fedcoin: Implementing a Central Bank Backed Digital Currency in the United States.
Summary: This paper looks at law, economics, and technology to discuss Fedcoin design considerations.
Authors: Victoria Dodev*,
Affiliations: * Duke University, School of Law.
2. Paper Title: The Light Touch of Caveat Emptor in Crypto’s Wild West.
Summary: This short paper recommends a light-touch approach to crypto enforcement that would help U.S. tech innovators keep pace with global competition.
Authors: Mihailis Diamantis*,
Affiliations: * University of Iowa - College of Law.
3. Paper Title: The Microeconomics of Cryptocurrencies.
Summary: As with any new good or service, the microeconomics research task is to understand its supply (i.e., what technological properties allow it to operate), its demand (i.e., to what uses are agents putting it), its value (i.e., what determines its trading price in the market) and the nature of competition (i.e., how strong is substitution between different varieties of the new good or service and others with similar functionality).
Conferences, Journals, & CFPs:
September 17-18 - Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology (CBT’2020) (United Kingdom)
October 21-23 - The second ACM conference on Advances in Financial Technologies (AFT’20) (New York City)
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