This Week in Blockchain Research Issue #109

Issue #109


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Issue #109

Paper of the Week:

Paper Title: Internet Computer Consensus.

TLDR:

  1. This work presents the Internet Computer Consensus (ICC) family of protocols for atomic broadcast (a.k.a., consensus), which underpin the Byzantine fault-tolerant replicated state machines of the Internet Computer.

  2. The ICC protocols are leader-based protocols that assume partial synchrony, and that are fully integrated with a blockchain. The leader changes probabilistically in every round.

  3. These protocols are extremely simple and robust: in any round where the leader is corrupt (which itself happens with probability less than 1/3), each ICC protocol will effectively allow another party to take over as leader for that round, with very little fuss, to move the protocol forward to the next round in a timely fashion.

  4. Unlike in many other protocols, there are no complicated subprotocols (such as “view change” in PBFT) or unspecified subprotocols (such as “pacemaker” in HotStuff). Moreover, unlike in many other protocols (such as PBFT and HotStuff), the task of reliably disseminating the blocks to all parties is an integral part the protocol, and not left to some other unspecified subprotocol.

  5. An additional property enjoyed by the ICC protocols (just like PBFT and HotStuff, and unlike others, such as Tendermint) is optimistic responsiveness, which means that when the leader is honest, the protocol will proceed at the pace of the actual network delay, rather than some upper bound on the network delay.

AuthorsJan Camenisch*, Manu Drijvers*, Timo Hanke*, Yvonne-Anne Pignolet*, Victor Shoup*, and Dominic Williams*,

Affiliations: * DFINITY Foundation.


Security:

1. Paper Title: Mining in Logarithmic Space.

Summary: A protocol which allows pruning the blockchain by garbage collecting old blocks as they become unnecessary.

Authors: Aggelos Kiayias*†, Nikos Leonardos‡, and Dionysis Zindros‡,

Affiliations* University of Edinburgh, † IOHK, and ‡ University of Athens.

2. Paper Title: Hedging Against Sore Loser Attacks in Cross-Chain Transactions.

Summary: New distributed protocols for hedging a range of cross-chain transactions in a synchronous communication model, such as two-party swaps, 𝑛-party swaps, brokered transactions, and auctions.

Authors: Yingjie Xue* and Maurice Herlihy*,

Affiliations* Brown University.

3. Paper Title: R-SWAP: Relay based atomic cross-chain swap protocol.

Summary: A new protocol for cross-chain swaps that outperforms existing solutions.

Authors: Leonard Lys*†, Arthur Micoulet†, and Maria Potop-Butucaru*,

Affiliations* Sorbonne Universite and † PALO IT.


Privacy:

1. Paper Title: Tomen: Application of Bitcoin Transaction Based on Tor.

Summary: An encryption application for the communication process in the bitcoin transaction process, combined with the encryption principle method of Tor.

Authors: Yuanzhe Jin*, Ziheng Dong*, and Xing Li*,

Affiliations* Northwestern University.

2. Paper Title: SwapCT: Swap Confidential Transactions for Privacy-Preserving Multi-Token Exchanges.

Summary: A swap confidential transaction system which is related to ring confidential transactions (e.g. used in Monero) but supports multiple token types to trade among and enables secure, partial transactions for non-interactive swaps.

Authors: Felix Engelmann*, Lukas Müller†, Andreas Peter‡, Frank Kargl†, and Christoph Bösch†,

Affiliations* Aarhus University, † Ulm University, and ‡ University of Twente.

3. Paper Title: Bitcoin Privacy - A Survey on Mixing Techniques.

Summary: Review and evaluate mixing techniques in Bitcoin.

Authors: Simin Ghesmati*†, Walid Fdhila*, and Edgar Weippl*‡,

Affiliations* SBA Research, † Vienna university of technology, and ‡ University of Vienna.


Scalability:

No papers.


Proofs:

1. Paper Title: Hydra: Succinct Fully Pipelineable Interactive Arguments of Knowledge.

Summary: Advancements for interactive arguments with Hydra.

Authors: William Zhang* and Yu Xia†,

Affiliations* Ward Melville High School and † MIT CSAIL.


Consensus:

1. Paper Title: The Availability-Accountability Dilemma and its Resolution via Accountability Gadgets.

Summary: Evaluate the security of an accountable protocol in terms of its liveness resilience, the minimum number of Byzantine nodes when liveness is violated, and its accountable safety resilience, the minimum number of accountable Byzantine nodes when safety is violated.

Authors: Joachim Neu*, Ertem Nusret Tas*, and David Tse*,

Affiliations* Stanford.

2. Paper Title: Formal Security Analysis on dBFT Protocol of NEO.

Summary: Security analysis focused on the core component of NEO.

Authors: Qin Wang*, Rujia Li†‡, Shiping Chen§, and Yang Xiang*,

Affiliations* Swinburne University of Technology, † Southern University of Science and Technology, ‡ University of Birmingham, and § CSIRO Data61.


Tokenomics:

1. Paper Title: FairMM: A Fast and Frontrunning-Resistant Crypto Market-Maker.

Summary: A market-maker-based exchange of tokens on a smart-contract- enabled blockchain, e.g., Ethereum tokens, with built-in cryptographic defenses agains a wide class of front-running.

AuthorsMichele Ciampi*, Muhammad Ishaq*, Malik Magdon-Ismail†, Rafail Ostrovsky‡, and Vassilis Zikas§,

Affiliations: * The University of Edinburgh, † Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, ‡ University of California, Los Angeles, and § Purdue University.

2. Paper Title: Blockchains, Front-Running, and Candle Auctions.

Summary: Under a uniform ending-time distribution both the utility of the disadvantaged bidder and total revenues approach that of a second-price auction as the number of rounds grows large.

Authors: Samuel Hafner* and Alistair Stewart*,

Affiliations* Web3 Foundation.


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